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Title: Privacy-aware estimation of relatedness in admixed populations
Abstract Background

Estimation of genetic relatedness, or kinship, is used occasionally for recreational purposes and in forensic applications. While numerous methods were developed to estimate kinship, they suffer from high computational requirements and often make an untenable assumption of homogeneous population ancestry of the samples. Moreover, genetic privacy is generally overlooked in the usage of kinship estimation methods. There can be ethical concerns about finding unknown familial relationships in third-party databases. Similar ethical concerns may arise while estimating and reporting sensitive population-level statistics such as inbreeding coefficients for the concerns around marginalization and stigmatization.


Here, we present SIGFRIED, which makes use of existing reference panels with a projection-based approach that simplifies kinship estimation in the admixed populations. We use simulated and real datasets to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of kinship estimation. We present a secure federated kinship estimation framework and implement a secure kinship estimator using homomorphic encryption-based primitives for computing relatedness between samples in two different sites while genotype data are kept confidential. Source code and documentation for our methods can be found at


Analysis of relatedness is fundamentally important for identifying relatives, in association studies, and for estimation of population-level estimates of inbreeding. As the awareness of individual and group genomic privacy is growing, privacy-preserving methods for the estimation of relatedness are needed. Presented methods alleviate the ethical and privacy concerns in the analysis of relatedness in admixed, historically isolated and underrepresented populations.

Short Abstract

Genetic relatedness is a central quantity used for finding relatives in databases, correcting biases in genome wide association studies and for estimating population-level statistics. Methods for estimating genetic relatedness have high computational requirements, and occasionally do not consider individuals from admixed ancestries. Furthermore, the ethical concerns around using genetic data and calculating relatedness are not considered. We present a projection-based approach that can efficiently and accurately estimate kinship. We implement our method using encryption-based techniques that provide provable security guarantees to protect genetic data while kinship statistics are computed among multiple sites.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Briefings in Bioinformatics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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