skip to main content

Title: Vela pulsar: single pulses analysis with machine learning techniques

We study individual pulses of Vela (PSR B0833−45/J0835−4510) from daily observations of over 3 h (around 120 000 pulses per observation), performed simultaneously with the two radio telescopes at the Argentine Institute of Radioastronomy. We select four days of observations in 2021 January to March and study their statistical properties with machine learning techniques. We first use Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise clustering techniques, associating pulses mainly by amplitudes, and find a correlation between higher amplitudes and earlier arrival times. We also find a weaker (polarization dependent) correlation with the mean width of the pulses. We identify clusters of the so-called mini-giant pulses, with ∼10 times the average pulse amplitude. We then perform an independent study, with Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) clustering techniques. We use Variational AutoEncoder (VAE) reconstruction of the pulses to separate them clearly from the noise and select one of the days of observation to train VAE and apply it to the rest of the observations. We use SOM to determine four clusters of pulses per day per radio telescope and conclude that our main results are robust and self-consistent. These results support models for emitting regions at different heights (separated each by roughly a hundred km) in the pulsar magnetosphere. We also model the pulses amplitude distribution with interstellar scintillation patterns at the inter-pulses time-scale finding a characterizing exponent nISS ∼ 7–10. In the appendices, we discuss independent checks of hardware systematics with the simultaneous use of the two radio telescopes in different one-polarization/two-polarizations configurations. We also provide a detailed analysis of the processes of radio-interferences cleaning and individual pulse folding.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 5790-5808
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this

    We report here on the first results of a systematic monitoring of southern glitching pulsars at the Argentine Institute of Radioastronomy that started in the year 2019. We detected a major glitch in the Vela pulsar (PSR J0835 − 4510) and two small glitches in PSR J1048 − 5832. For each glitch, we present the measurement of glitch parameters by fitting timing residuals. We then make an individual pulse study of Vela in observations before and after the glitch. We selected 6 days of observations around the major glitch on 2021 July 22 and study their statistical properties with machine learning techniques. We use variational autoencoder (VAE) reconstruction of the pulses to separate them clearly from the noise. We perform a study with self-organizing map (SOM) clustering techniques to search for unusual behaviour of the clusters during the days around the glitch not finding notable qualitative changes. We have also detected and confirmed recent glitches in PSR J0742 − 2822 and PSR J1740 − 3015.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    We report two low-frequency measurements of the power-law index for the amplitudes of giant radio pulses from the Crab pulsar. The two observations were taken with the Arecibo and Green Bank radio telescopes at center frequencies of 327 MHz and 350 MHz, respectively. We find best-fit values for the differential power-law indexβ(wheredN/dSSβandSis the pulse amplitude) of −2.63 ± 0.05 and −3.6 ± 0.5 from the Arecibo and Green Bank data sets, respectively. Both values are broadly consistent with other values previously measured for the Crab pulsar at low radio frequencies. These reported values may be useful in future giant pulse studies of the Crab pulsar.

    more » « less
  3. Two-color ultrashort laser pulses have emerging applications in numerous areas of science and technology. In many cases, the slightest change in the combined electric field of a two-color pulse greatly affects its interaction mechanism with the system. Therefore, a precise characterization of the temporal/spectral profile of the combined electric field is of great importance. In this work, we demonstrate that a full characterization is possible using the well-known transient-grating (TG) or polarization-gating (PG) frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) techniques, and by employing the recently developed Retrieved-Amplitude N-grid Algorithmic (RANA) approach for the retrieval process. We demonstrate the validity of using these techniques and this approach for multi-cycle and few-cycle pulses in the absence and presence of noise.

    more » « less
  4. ABSTRACT We conducted a drift-scan observation campaign using the 305-m Arecibo telescope in 2020 January and March when the observatory was temporarily closed during the intense earthquakes and the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. The primary objective of the survey was to search for fast radio transients, including fast radio bursts (FRBs) and rotating radio transients (RRATs). We used the seven-beam ALFA receiver to observe different sections of the sky within the declination region ∼(10°–20°) on 23 nights and collected 160 h of data in total. We searched our data for single-pulse transients, of covering up to a maximum dispersion measure of 11 000 pc cm−3 at which the dispersion delay across the entire bandwidth is equal to the 13-s transit length of our observations. The analysis produced more than 18 million candidates. Machine learning techniques sorted the radio frequency interference and possibly astrophysical candidates, allowing us to visually inspect and confirm the candidate transients. We found no evidence for new astrophysical transients in our data. We also searched for emission from repeated transient signals, but found no evidence for such sources. We detected single pulses from two known pulsars in our observations and their measured flux densities are consistent with the expected values. Based on our observations and sensitivity, we estimated the upper limit for the FRB rate to be <2.8 × 105 sky−1 d−1 above a fluence of 0.16 Jy ms at 1.4 GHz, which is consistent with the rates from other telescopes and surveys. 
    more » « less
  5. A modern implementation of a stellar intensity interferometry (SII) system on an array of large optical telescopes would be a highly valuable complement to the current generation of optical amplitude interferometers. The SII technique allows for observations at short optical wavelengths (U/B/V bands) with potentially dense (u,v) plane coverage. We describe a complete SII system that is used to measure the spatial coherence of a laboratory source which exhibits signal to noise ratios comparable to actual stellar sources. A novel analysis method, based on the correlation measurements between orthogonal polarization states, was developed to remove unwanted effects of spurious correlations. Our system is currently being tested in night sky observations at the StarBase Observatory (Grantsville, Utah) and will soon be ported to the VERITAS (Amado, AZ) telescopes. The system can readily be integrated with current optical telescopes at minimal cost. The work here serves as a technological pathfinder for implementing SII on the future Cherenkov Telescope Array. 
    more » « less