Incompatibilities on the sex chromosomes are important in the evolution of hybrid male sterility, but the evolutionary forces underlying this phenomenon are unclear. House mice (Mus musculus) lineages have provided powerful models for understanding the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility. X chromosome–autosome interactions cause strong incompatibilities in M. musculus F1 hybrids, but variation in sterility phenotypes suggests a more complex genetic basis. In addition, XY chromosome conflict has resulted in rapid expansions of ampliconic genes with dosage-dependent expression that is essential to spermatogenesis. Here, we evaluated the contribution of XY lineage mismatch to male fertility and stage-specific gene expression in hybrid mice. We performed backcrosses between two house mouse subspecies to generate reciprocal Y-introgression strains and used these strains to test the effects of XY mismatch in hybrids. Our transcriptome analyses of sorted spermatid cells revealed widespread overexpression of the X chromosome in sterile F1 hybrids independent of Y chromosome subspecies origin. Thus, postmeiotic overexpression of the X chromosome in sterile F1 mouse hybrids is likely a downstream consequence of disrupted meiotic X-inactivation rather than XY gene copy number imbalance. Y chromosome introgression did result in subfertility phenotypes and disrupted expression of several autosomal genes in mice withmore »
The genomic imbalance caused by varying the dosage of individual chromosomes or chromosomal segments (aneuploidy) has more detrimental effects than altering the dosage of complete chromosome sets (ploidy). Previous analysis of maize (
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Nature Communications
- Nature Publishing Group
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Sex chromosome evolution results in the disparity in gene content between heterogametic sex chromosomes and creates the need for dosage compensation to counteract the effects of gene dose imbalance of sex chromosomes in males and females. It is not known at which stage of sex chromosome evolution dosage compensation would evolve. We used global gene expression profiling in male and female papayas to assess gene expression patterns of sex-linked genes on the papaya sex chromosomes. By analyzing expression ratios of sex-linked genes to autosomal genes and sex-linked genes in males relative to females, our results showed that dosage compensation was regulated on a gene-by-gene level rather than whole sex-linked region in papaya. Seven genes on the papaya X chromosome exhibited dosage compensation. We further compared gene expression ratios in the two evolutionary strata. Y alleles in the older evolutionary stratum showed reduced expression compared to X alleles, while Y alleles in the younger evolutionary stratum showed elevated expression compared to X alleles. Reduced expression of Y alleles in the older evolutionary stratum might be caused by accumulation of deleterious mutations in regulatory regions or transposable element-mediated methylation spreading. Most X-hemizygous genes exhibited either no or very low expression, suggestingmore »
Hahn, M (Ed.)Abstract Individuals carrying an aberrant number of chromosomes can vary widely in their expression of aneuploidy phenotypes. A major unanswered question is the degree to which an individual’s genetic makeup influences its tolerance of karyotypic imbalance. Here we investigated within-species variation in aneuploidy prevalence and tolerance, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model for eukaryotic biology. We analyzed genotypic and phenotypic variation recently published for over 1,000 S. cerevisiae strains spanning dozens of genetically defined clades and ecological associations. Our results show that the prevalence of chromosome gain and loss varies by clade and can be better explained by differences in genetic background than ecology. The relationships between lineages with high aneuploidy frequencies suggest that increased aneuploidy prevalence emerged multiple times in S. cerevisiae evolution. Separate from aneuploidy prevalence, analyzing growth phenotypes revealed that some genetic backgrounds—such as the European Wine lineage—show fitness costs in aneuploids compared to euploids, whereas other clades with high aneuploidy frequencies show little evidence of major deleterious effects. Our analysis confirms that chromosome gain can produce phenotypic benefits, which could influence evolutionary trajectories. These results have important implications for understanding genetic variation in aneuploidy prevalence in health, disease, and evolution.
Many plant species exhibit genetic variation for coping with environmental stress. However, there are still limited approaches to effectively uncover the genomic region that regulates distinct responsive patterns of the gene across multiple varieties within the same species under abiotic stress.
By analyzing the transcriptomes of more than 100 maize inbreds, we reveal many
cis- and trans-acting eQTLs that influence the expression response to heat stress. The cis-acting eQTLs in response to heat stress are identified in genes with differential responses to heat stress between genotypes as well as genes that are only expressed under heat stress. The cis-acting variants for heat stress-responsive expression likely result from distinct promoter activities, and the differential heat responses of the alleles are confirmed for selected genes using transient expression assays. Global footprinting of transcription factor binding is performed in control and heat stress conditions to document regions with heat-enriched transcription factor binding occupancies. Conclusions
Footprints enriched near proximal regions of characterized heat-responsive genes in a large association panel can be utilized for prioritizing functional genomic regions that regulate genotype-specific responses under heat stress.
A major sex difference in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is that men with the disease die earlier than do women. In aging and preclinical AD, men also show more cognitive deficits. Here, we show that the X chromosome affects AD-related vulnerability in mice expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP), a model of AD. XY-hAPP mice genetically modified to develop testicles or ovaries showed worse mortality and deficits than did XX-hAPP mice with either gonad, indicating a sex chromosome effect. To dissect whether the absence of a second X chromosome or the presence of a Y chromosome conferred a disadvantage on male mice, we varied sex chromosome dosage. With or without a Y chromosome, hAPP mice with one X chromosome showed worse mortality and deficits than did those with two X chromosomes. Thus, adding a second X chromosome conferred resilience to XY males and XO females. In addition, the Y chromosome, its sex-determining region Y gene (
Sry), or testicular development modified mortality in hAPP mice with one X chromosome such that XY males with testicles survived longer than did XY or XO females with ovaries. Furthermore, a second X chromosome conferred resilience potentially through the candidate gene Kdm6a, which does not undergomore »