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Multiphase outflows in post-starburst E+A galaxies – I. General sample properties and the prevalence of obscured starbursts
ABSTRACT

E+A galaxies are believed to be a short phase connecting major merger ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) with red and dead elliptical galaxies. Their optical spectrum suggests a massive starburst that was quenched abruptly, and their bulge-dominated morphologies with tidal tails suggest that they are merger remnants. Active galactic nucleus (AGN)-driven winds are believed to be one of the processes responsible for the sudden quenching of star formation and for the expulsion and/or destruction of the remaining molecular gas. Little is known about AGN-driven winds in this short-lived phase. In this paper, we present the first and unique sample of post-starburst galaxy candidates with AGNs that show indications of ionized outflows in their optical emission lines. Using Infrared Astronomical Satellite–far infrared (IRAS–FIR) observations, we study the star formation in these systems and find that many systems selected to have post-starburst signatures in their optical spectrum are in fact obscured starbursts. Using SDSS spectroscopy, we study the stationary and outflowing ionized gas. We also detect neutral gas outflows in 40 per cent of the sources with mass outflow rates 10–100 times more massive than in the ionized phase. The mean mass outflow rate and kinetic power of the ionized outflows in our sample ($\dot{M}\sim more » Authors: ; ; ; ; Publication Date: NSF-PAR ID: 10382039 Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Volume: 509 Issue: 3 Page Range or eLocation-ID: p. 4457-4479 ISSN: 0035-8711 Publisher: Oxford University Press Sponsoring Org: National Science Foundation ##### More Like this 1. We report molecular gas observations of IRAS 20100-4156 and IRAS 03158+4227, two local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) hosting some of the fastest and most massive molecular outflows known. Using ALMA and PdBI observations, we spatially resolve the CO(1-0) emission from the outflowing molecular gas in both and find maximum outflow velocities of$ v_{\rm max} \sim 1600$and$\sim 1700$km/s for IRAS 20100-4156 and IRAS 03158+4227, respectively. We find total gas mass outflow rates of$\dot M_{\rm OF} \sim 670$and$\sim 350$Msun/yr, respectively, corresponding to molecular gas depletion timescales$\tau^{\rm dep}_{\rm OF} \sim 11$and$\sim 16$Myr. This is nearly 3 times shorter than the depletion timescales implied by star formation,$\tau^{\rm dep}_{\rm SFR} \sim 33$and$\sim 46$Myr, respectively. To determine the outflow driving mechanism, we compare the starburst ($L_{*}$) and AGN ($L_{\rm AGN}$) luminosities to the outflowing energy and momentum fluxes, using mid-infrared spectral decomposition to discern$L_{\rm AGN}$. Comparison to other molecular outflows in ULIRGs reveals that outflow properties correlate similarly with$L_{*}$and$L_{\rm IR}$as with$L_{\rm AGN}$, indicating that AGN luminosity alone may not be a good tracer of feedback strength and that a combination of AGN and starburstmore » 2. ABSTRACT Powerful outflows are thought to play a critical role in galaxy evolution and black hole growth. We present the first large-scale systematic study of ionized outflows in paired galaxies and post-mergers compared to a robust control sample of isolated galaxies. We isolate the impact of the merger environment to determine if outflow properties depend on merger stage. Our sample contains ∼4000 paired galaxies and ∼250 post-mergers in the local universe (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.2) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR 7) matched in stellar mass, redshift, local density of galaxies, and [O iii] λ5007 luminosity to a control sample of isolated galaxies. By fitting the [O iii] λ5007 line, we find ionized outflows in ∼15 per cent of our entire sample. Outflows are much rarer in star-forming galaxies compared to active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and outflow incidence and velocity increase with [O iii] λ5007 luminosity. Outflow incidence is significantly elevated in the optical + mid-infrared selected AGN compared to purely optical AGN; over 60 per cent show outflows at the highest luminosities ($L_{\mathrm{[OIII]~\lambda 5007}}\, \gtrsim$1042 erg s−1), suggesting mid-infrared AGN selection favours galaxies with powerful outflows, at least for higher [O iii] λ5007 luminosities. However, we find no statistically significant difference in outflow incidence, velocity, and luminosity inmore » 3. ABSTRACT We study the gas distribution and kinematics of the inner kpc of six moderately luminous (43.43 ≤ log Lbol ≤ 44.83) nearby (0.004 ≤ z ≤ 0.014) Seyfert galaxies observed with the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) in the J ($1.25\,\mu$m) and K ($2.2\,\mu$m) bands. We analyse the most intense emission lines detected on these spectral wavebands: [Fe ii]$1.2570\, \mu$m and Paβ, which trace the ionized gas in the partially and fully ionized regions, and$\mathrm{ H}_2 \ 2.1218\, \mu$m, which traces the hot (∼2000 K) molecular gas. The dominant kinematic component is rotation in the disc of the galaxies, except for the ionized gas in NGC 5899 that shows only weak signatures of a disc component. We find ionized gas outflow in four galaxies, while signatures of H2 outflows are seen in three galaxies. The ionized gas outflows display velocities of a few hundred km s−1, and their mass outflow rates are in the range 0.005–12.49 M⊙ yr−1. Their kinetic powers correspond to 0.005–0.7 per cent of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) bolometric luminosities. Besides rotation and outflows signatures in some cases, the H2 kinematics also reveals inflows in three galaxies. The inflow velocities are 50–80 km s−1 and the mass inflow rates are in the range 1–9 × 10−4 M⊙ yr−1 formore » 4. ABSTRACT Feedback from accreting supermassive black holes (BHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), is now a cornerstone of galaxy formation models. In this work, we present radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of radiative AGN feedback using the novel arepo-rt code. A central BH emits radiation at a constant luminosity and drives an outflow via radiation pressure on dust grains. Utilizing an isolated Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) halo we validate our set-up in the single- and multiscattering regimes, with the simulated shock front propagation in excellent agreement with the expected analytic result. For a spherically symmetric NFW halo, an examination of the simulated outflow properties with radiation collimation demonstrates a decreasing mass outflow rate and momentum flux, but increasing kinetic power and outflow velocity with decreasing opening angle. We then explore the impact of a central disc galaxy and the assumed dust model on the outflow properties. The contraction of the halo during the galaxy’s formation and modelling the production of dust grains result in a factor 100 increase in the halo’s optical depth. Radiation then couples momentum more efficiently to the gas, driving a stronger shock and producing a mass-loaded$\sim \!10^{3}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }\, \mathrm{yr}^{-1}$outflow with a velocity of$\sim \!2000\, \mathrm{km}\, \mathrm{s}^{-1}\$. However, themore »
5. Abstract

We present a multiwavelength study of IC 860, a nearby post-starburst galaxy at the early stage of transitioning from blue and star forming to red and quiescent. Optical images reveal a galaxy-wide, dusty outflow originating from a compact core. We find evidence for a multiphase outflow in the molecular and neutral gas phase from the CO position–velocity diagram and NaD absorption features. We constrain the neutral mass outflow rate to be ∼0.5Myr−1, and the total hydrogen mass outflow rate to be ∼12Myr−1. Neither outflow component seems able to escape the galaxy. We also find evidence for a recent merger in the optical images, CO spatial distribution, and kinematics, and evidence for a buried active galactic nucleus in the optical emission line ratios, mid-IR properties, and radio spectral shape. The depletion time of the molecular gas reservoir under the current star formation rate is ∼7 Gyr, indicating that the galaxy could stay at the intermediate stage between the blue and red sequence for a long time. Thus the timescales for a significant decline in star formation rate (quenching) and gas depletion are not necessarily the same. Our analysis supports the quenching picture where outflows help suppress star formation by disturbingmore »