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This content will become publicly available on October 26, 2023

Title: Growth Substrate and Prophage Induction Collectively Influence Metabolite and Lipid Profiles in a Marine Bacterium
ABSTRACT Bacterial growth substrates influence a variety of biological functions, including the biosynthesis and regulation of lipid intermediates. The extent of this rewiring is not well understood nor has it been considered in the context of virally infected cells. Here, we used a one-host-two-temperate phage model system to probe the combined influence of growth substrate and phage infection on host carbon and lipid metabolism. Using untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics, we reported the detection of a suite of metabolites and lipid classes for two Sulfitobacter lysogens provided with three growth substrates of differing complexity and nutrient composition (yeast extract/tryptone [complex], glutamate and acetate). The growth medium led to dramatic differences in the detectable intracellular metabolites, with only 15% of 175 measured metabolites showing overlap across the three growth substrates. Between-strain differences were most evident in the cultures grown on acetate, followed by glutamate then complex medium. Lipid distribution profiles were also distinct between cultures grown on different substrates as well as between the two lysogens grown in the same medium. Five phospholipids, three aminolipid, and one class of unknown lipid-like features were identified. Most (≥94%) of these 75 lipids were quantifiable in all samples. Metabolite and lipid profiles were strongly determined more » by growth medium composition and modestly by strain type. Because fluctuations in availability and form of carbon substrates and nutrients, as well as virus pressure, are common features of natural systems, the influence of these intersecting factors will undoubtedly be imprinted in the metabolome and lipidome of resident bacteria. IMPORTANCE Community-level metabolomics approaches are increasingly used to characterize natural microbial populations. These approaches typically depend upon temporal snapshots from which the status and function of communities are often inferred. Such inferences are typically drawn from lab-based studies of select model organisms raised under limited growth conditions. To better interpret community-level data, the extent to which ecologically relevant bacteria demonstrate metabolic flexibility requires elucidation. Herein, we used an environmentally relevant model heterotrophic marine bacterium to assess the relationship between growth determinants and metabolome. We also aimed to assess the contribution of phage activity to the host metabolome. Striking differences in primary metabolite and lipid profiles appeared to be driven primarily by growth regime and, secondarily, by phage type. These findings demonstrated the malleable nature of metabolomes and lipidomes and lay the foundation for future studies that relate cellular composition with function in complex environmental microbial communities. « less
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Gambino, Michela
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National Science Foundation
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