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Title: Anterograde signaling controls plastid transcription via sigma factors separately from nuclear photosynthesis genes

Light initiates chloroplast biogenesis inArabidopsisby eliminating PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING transcription FACTORs (PIFs), which in turn de-represses nuclear photosynthesis genes, and synchronously, generates a nucleus-to-plastid (anterograde) signal that activates the plastid-encoded bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP) to transcribe plastid photosynthesis genes. However, the identity of the anterograde signal remains frustratingly elusive. The main challenge has been the difficulty to distinguish regulators from the plethora of necessary components for plastid transcription and other essential chloroplast functions, such as photosynthesis. Here, we show that the genome-wide induction of nuclear photosynthesis genes is insufficient to activate the PEP. PEP inhibition is imposed redundantly by multiple PIFs and requires PIF3’s activator activity. Among the nuclear-encoded components of the PEP holoenzyme, we identify four light-inducible, PIF-repressed sigma factors as anterograde signals. Together, our results elucidate that light-dependent inhibition of PIFs activates plastid photosynthesis genes via sigma factors as anterograde signals in parallel with the induction of nuclear photosynthesis genes.

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Nature Publishing Group
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Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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