skip to main content

Title: VERTICO. IV. Environmental Effects on the Gas Distribution and Star Formation Efficiency of Virgo Cluster Spirals

We measure the molecular-to-atomic gas ratio,Rmol, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit molecular gas mass, SFEmol, in 38 nearby galaxies selected from the Virgo Environment Traced in CO (VERTICO) survey. We stack ALMA12CO (J= 2−1) spectra coherently using Hivelocities from the VIVA survey to detect faint CO emission out to galactocentric radiirgal∼ 1.2r25. We determine the scale lengths for the molecular and stellar components, finding a ∼3:5 relation compared to ∼1:1 in field galaxies, indicating that the CO emission is more centrally concentrated than the stars. We computeRmolas a function of different physical quantities. While the spatially resolvedRmolon average decreases with increasing radius, we find that the mean molecular-to-atomic gas ratio within the stellar effective radiusRe,Rmol(r<Re), shows a systematic increase with the level of Hi, truncation and/or asymmetry (HIperturbation). Analysis of the molecular- and the atomic-to-stellar mass ratios withinRe,Rmol(r<Re)andRatom(r<Re), shows that VERTICO galaxies have increasingly lowerRatom(r<Re)for larger levels of HIperturbation (compared to field galaxies matched in stellar mass), but no significant change inRmol(r<Re). We also measure a clear systematic decrease of the SFEmolwithinRe, SFEmol(r<Re), more » with increasingly perturbed Hi. Therefore, compared to field galaxies from the field, VERTICO galaxies are more compact in CO emission in relation to their stellar distribution, but increasingly perturbed atomic gas increases theirRmoland decreases the efficiency with which their molecular gas forms stars.

« less
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; « less
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 176
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A theoretical analysis on crack formation and propagation was performed based on the coupling between the electrochemical process, classical elasticity, and fracture mechanics. The chemical potential of oxygen, thus oxygen partial pressure, at the oxygen electrode-electrolyte interface (μO2OE∣El) was investigated as a function of transport properties, electrolyte thickness and operating conditions (e.g., steam concentration, constant current, and constant voltage). Our analysis shows that: a lower ionic area specific resistance (ASR),riOE,and a higher electronic ASR (reOE) of the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface are in favor of suppressing crack formation. TheμO2OEEl,thus local pO2, are sensitive towards the operating parameters under galvanostatic or potentiostatic electrolysis. Constant current density electrolysis provides better robustness, especially at a high current density with a high steam content. While constant voltage electrolysis leads to greater variations ofμO2OEEl.Constant current electrolysis, however, is not suitable for an unstable oxygen electrode becauseμO2OEElcan reach a very high value with a gradually increasedriOE.A crack may only occur under certain conditions whenpO2TPB>pcr.

  2. Abstract

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of the galaxy cluster SPT-CL J0607-4448 (SPT0607), which is one of the most distant clusters discovered by the South Pole Telescope atz= 1.4010 ± 0.0028. The high-redshift cluster shows clear signs of being relaxed with well-regulated feedback from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). Using Chandra X-ray data, we construct thermodynamic profiles and determine the properties of the intracluster medium. The cool-core nature of the cluster is supported by a centrally peaked density profile and low central entropy (K0=189+11keV cm2), which we estimate assuming an isothermal temperature profile due to the limited spectral information given the distance to the cluster. Using the density profile and gas cooling time inferred from the X-ray data, we find a mass-cooling rateṀcool=10060+90Myr−1. From optical spectroscopy and photometry around the [Oii] emission line, we estimate that the BCG star formation rate isSFR[OII]=1.70.6+1.0Myr−1, roughly two orders of magnitude lower than the predicted mass-cooling rate. In addition, using ATCA radio data at 2.1 GHz, we measure a radio jet powerPcav=3.21.3+2.1×1044erg s−1, which is consistent withmore »the X-ray cooling luminosity (Lcool=1.90.5+0.2×1044erg s−1withinrcool= 43 kpc). These findings suggest that SPT0607 is a relaxed, cool-core cluster with AGN-regulated cooling at an epoch shortly after cluster formation, implying that the balance between cooling and feedback can be reached quickly. We discuss the implications for these findings on the evolution of AGN feedback in galaxy clusters.

    « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a chemodynamical study of the Grus I ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD) from medium-resolution (R∼ 11,000) Magellan/IMACS spectra of its individual member stars. We identify eight confirmed members of Grus I, based on their low metallicities and coherent radial velocities, and four candidate members for which only velocities are derived. In contrast to previous work, we find that Grus I has a very low mean metallicity of 〈[Fe/H]〉 = −2.62 ± 0.11 dex, making it one of the most metal-poor UFDs. Grus I has a systemic radial velocity of −143.5 ± 1.2 km s−1and a velocity dispersion ofσrv=2.50.8+1.3km s−1, which results in a dynamical mass ofM1/2(rh)=84+12×105Mand a mass-to-light ratio ofM/LV=440250+650M/L. Under the assumption of dynamical equilibrium, our analysis confirms that Grus I is a dark-matter-dominated UFD (M/L> 80M/L). However, we do not resolve a metallicity dispersion (σ[Fe/H]< 0.44 dex). Our results indicate that Grus I is a fairly typical UFD with parameters that agree with mass–metallicity and metallicity-luminosity trends for faint galaxies. This agreement suggests that Grus I has not lost an especially significant amount of mass from tidal encounters with the Milky Way, in linemore »with its orbital parameters. Intriguingly, Grus I has among the lowest central densities (ρ1/23.52.1+5.7×107Mkpc−3) of the UFDs that are not known to be tidally disrupting. Models of the formation and evolution of UFDs will need to explain the diversity of these central densities, in addition to any diversity in the outer regions of these relic galaxies.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    Recently, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) has produced the experiment’s first upper limits on the power spectrum of 21 cm fluctuations atz∼ 8 and 10. Here, we use several independent theoretical models to infer constraints on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and galaxies during the epoch of reionization from these limits. We find that the IGM must have been heated above the adiabatic-cooling threshold byz∼ 8, independent of uncertainties about IGM ionization and the radio background. Combining HERA limits with complementary observations constrains the spin temperature of thez∼ 8 neutral IGM to 27 KT¯S630 K (2.3 KT¯S640 K) at 68% (95%) confidence. They therefore also place a lower bound on X-ray heating, a previously unconstrained aspects of early galaxies. For example, if the cosmic microwave background dominates thez∼ 8 radio background, the new HERA limits imply that the first galaxies produced X-rays more efficiently than local ones. Thez∼ 10 limits require even earlier heating if dark-matter interactions cool the hydrogen gas. If an extra radio background is produced by galaxies, we rule out (at 95% confidence) the combination of high radio and low X-raymore »luminosities ofLr,ν/SFR > 4 × 1024W Hz−1M1yr andLX/SFR < 7.6 × 1039erg s−1M1yr. The new HERA upper limits neither support nor disfavor a cosmological interpretation of the recent Experiment to Detect the Global EOR Signature (EDGES) measurement. The framework described here provides a foundation for the interpretation of future HERA results.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    We present a measurement of the intrinsic space density of intermediate-redshift (z∼ 0.5), massive (M*∼ 1011M), compact (Re∼ 100 pc) starburst (ΣSFR∼ 1000Myr−1kpc−1) galaxies with tidal features indicative of them having undergone recent major mergers. A subset of them host kiloparsec-scale, > 1000 km s−1outflows and have little indication of AGN activity, suggesting that extreme star formation can be a primary driver of large-scale feedback. The aim for this paper is to calculate their space density so we can place them in a better cosmological context. We do this by empirically modeling the stellar populations of massive, compact starburst galaxies. We determine the average timescale on which galaxies that have recently undergone an extreme nuclear starburst would be targeted and included in our spectroscopically selected sample. We find that massive, compact starburst galaxies targeted by our criteria would be selectable for14824+27Myr and have an intrinsic space densitynCS(1.10.3+0.5)×106Mpc3. This space density is broadly consistent with ourz∼ 0.5 compact starbursts being the most extremely compact and star-forming low-redshift analogs of the compact star-forming galaxies in the early universe, as well as them being the progenitors to a fraction of intermediate-redshift, post-starburst, andmore »compact quiescent galaxies.

    « less