skip to main content

Title: High conductivity β-Ga2O3 formed by hot Si ion implantation

This work demonstrates the advantage of carrying out silicon ion (Si+) implantation at high temperatures for forming controlled heavily doped regions in gallium oxide. Room temperature (RT, 25 °C) and high temperature (HT, 600 °C) Si implants were carried out into MBE grown (010) β-Ga2O3 films to form ∼350 nm deep Si-doped layers with average concentrations up to ∼1.2 × 1020 cm−3. For such high concentrations, the RT sample was too resistive for measurement, but the HT samples had 82.1% Si dopant activation efficiency with a high sheet electron concentration of 3.3 × 1015 cm−2 and an excellent mobility of 92.8 cm2/V·s at room temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that HT implantation prevents the formation of other Ga2O3 phases and results in reduced structural defects and lattice damage. These results are highly encouraging for achieving ultra-low resistance heavily doped Ga2O3 layers using ion implantation.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
American Institute of Physics
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Obtaining uniform silicon concentration, especially with low concentrations (ranging from 1 × 1016 to 1 × 1018 cm−3) by molecular beam epitaxy, has been challenging due to oxidation of a silicon solid source in the oxide environment. In this work, Si doping of β-Ga2O3 (010) films by diluted disilane as the Si source is investigated using hybrid plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The impact of growth temperature, disilane source concentration, and disilane flow rate on Si incorporation was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Uniform Si concentrations ranging from 3 × 1016 to 2 × 1019 cm−3 are demonstrated. Si-doped β-Ga2O3 films with different silicon concentrations were grown on Fe-doped β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. The electron concentration and mobility were determined using van de Pauw Hall measurements. A high mobility of 135 cm2/V s was measured for an electron concentration of 3.4 × 1017 cm−3 at room temperature.

    more » « less
  2. In this work, the structural and electrical properties of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited Si-doped β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 thin films grown on (010) β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates are investigated as a function of Al composition. The room temperature Hall mobility of 101 cm 2 /V s and low temperature peak mobility (T = 65 K) of 1157 cm 2 /V s at carrier concentrations of 6.56 × 10 17 and 2.30 × 10 17  cm −3 are measured from 6% Al composition samples, respectively. The quantitative secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) characterization reveals a strong dependence of Si and other unintentional impurities, such as C, H, and Cl concentrations in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 thin films, with different Al compositions. Higher Al compositions in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 result in lower net carrier concentrations due to the reduction of Si incorporation efficiency and the increase of C and H impurity levels that act as compensating acceptors in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films. Lowering the growth chamber pressure reduces Si concentrations in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films due to the increase of Al compositions as evidenced by comprehensive SIMS and Hall characterizations. Due to the increase of lattice mismatch between the epifilm and substrate, higher Al compositions lead to cracking in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films grown on β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates. The (100) cleavage plane is identified as a major cracking plane limiting the growth of high-quality Si-doped (010) β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films beyond the critical thicknesses, which leads to highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous behaviors in terms of conductivity. 
    more » « less
  3. High room temperature n-type mobility, exceeding 300 cm2/Vs, was demonstrated in Si-doped AlN. Dislocations and CN−1 were identified as the main compensators for AlN grown on sapphire and AlN single crystalline substrates, respectively, limiting the lower doping limit and mobility. Once the dislocation density was reduced by the growth on AlN wafers, C-related compensation could be reduced by controlling the process supersaturation and Fermi level during growth. While the growth on sapphire substrates supported only high doping ([Si] > 5 × 1018 cm−3) and low mobility (∼20 cm2/Vs), growth on AlN with proper compensation management enabled controlled doping at two orders of magnitude lower dopant concentrations. This work is of crucial technological importance because it enables the growth of drift layers for AlN-based power devices.

    more » « less
  4. We report the use of suboxide molecular-beam epitaxy (S-MBE) to grow β-Ga2O3 at a growth rate of ∼1 μm/h with control of the silicon doping concentration from 5 × 1016 to 1019 cm−3 . In S-MBE, pre-oxidized gallium in the form of a molecular beam that is 99.98% Ga2O, i.e., gallium suboxide, is supplied. Directly supplying Ga2O to the growth surface bypasses the rate-limiting frst step of the two-step reaction mechanism involved in the growth of β-Ga2O3 by conventional MBE. As a result, a growth rate of ∼1 μm/h is readily achieved at a relatively low growth temperature (Tsub ≈ 525 ○C), resulting in flms with high structural perfection and smooth surfaces (rms roughness of <2 nm on ∼1 μm thick flms). Silicon-containing oxide sources (SiO and SiO2) producing an SiO suboxide molecular beam are used to dope the β-Ga2O3 layers. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements on a 1 μm thick flm with a mobile carrier concentration of 2.7 × 1017 cm−3 reveal a room-temperature mobility of 124 cm2 V−1 s −1 that increases to 627 cm2 V −1 s−1 at 76 K; the silicon dopants are found to exhibit an activation energy of 27 meV. We also demonstrate working metal–semiconductor feld-effect transistors made from these silicon-doped β-Ga2O3 flms grown by S-MBE at growth rates of ∼1 μm/h. 
    more » « less
  5. Growing a thick high-quality epitaxial layer on the β-Ga2O3 substrate is crucial in commercializing β-Ga2O3 devices. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is also well-established for the large-scale commercial growth of β-Ga2O3 and related heterostructures. This paper presents a systematic study of the Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on two different Si-doped homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3 thin films grown on Sn-doped (001) and (010) β-Ga2O3 substrates by MOCVD. X-ray diffraction analysis of the MOCVD-grown sample, room temperature current density–voltage data for different Schottky diodes, and C–V measurements are presented. Diode characteristics, such as ideality factor, barrier height, specific on-resistance, and breakdown voltage, are studied. Temperature dependence (170–360 K) of the ideality factor, barrier height, and Poole–Frenkel reverse leakage mechanism are also analyzed from the J–V–T characteristics of the fabricated Schottky diodes.

    more » « less