This content will become publicly available on August 11, 2023
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- 429 to 435
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- National Science Foundation
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Sinorhizobium meliloti Phage ΦM9 Defines a New Group of T4 Superfamily Phages with Unusual Genomic Features but a Common T=16 CapsidABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the phages that infect agriculturally important nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Here we report the genome and cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Sinorhizobium meliloti -infecting T4 superfamily phage ΦM9. This phage and its close relative Rhizobium phage vB_RleM_P10VF define a new group of T4 superfamily phages. These phages are distinctly different from the recently characterized cyanophage-like S. meliloti phages of the ΦM12 group. Structurally, ΦM9 has a T=16 capsid formed from repeating units of an extended gp23-like subunit that assemble through interactions between one subunit and the adjacent E-loop insertion domain. Though genetically very distant from the cyanophages, the ΦM9 capsid closely resembles that of the T4 superfamily cyanophage Syn9. ΦM9 also has the same T=16 capsid architecture as the very distant phage SPO1 and the herpesviruses. Despite their overall lack of similarity at the genomic and structural levels, ΦM9 and S. meliloti phage ΦM12 have a small number of open reading frames in common that appear to encode structural proteins involved in interaction with the host and which may have been acquired by horizontal transfer. These proteins are predicted to encode tail baseplate proteins, tail fibers, tail fiber assembly proteins, and glycanases that cleave hostmore »
Abstract Understanding how biological species arise is critical for understanding the evolution of life on Earth. Bioinformatic analyses have recently revealed that viruses, like multicellular life, form reproductively isolated biological species. Viruses are known to share high rates of genetic exchange, so how do they evolve genetic isolation? Here, we evaluate two related bacteriophages and describe three factors that limit genetic exchange between them: 1) A nucleus-like compartment that physically separates replicating phage genomes, thereby limiting inter-phage recombination during co-infection; 2) A tubulin-based spindle that orchestrates phage replication and forms nonfunctional hybrid polymers; and 3) A nuclear incompatibility factor that reduces phage fitness. Together, these traits maintain species differences through Subcellular Genetic Isolation where viral genomes are physically separated during co-infection, and Virogenesis Incompatibility in which the interaction of cross-species components interferes with viral production.
Some bacteriophage encode a recombinase that catalyzes single-stranded DNA annealing (SSA). These proteins are apparently related to RAD52, the primary human SSA protein. The best studied protein, Redβ from bacteriophage λ, binds weakly to ssDNA, not at all to dsDNA, but tightly to a duplex intermediate of annealing formed when two complementary DNA strands are added to the protein sequentially. We used single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine a 3.4 Å structure of a Redβ homolog from a prophage of
Listeria innocuain complex with two complementary 83mer oligonucleotides. The structure reveals a helical protein filament bound to a DNA duplex that is highly extended and unwound. Native mass spectrometry confirms that the complex seen by cryo-EM is the predominant species in solution. The protein shares a common core fold with RAD52 and a similar mode of ssDNA-binding. These data provide insights into the mechanism of protein-catalyzed SSA.
Roles of Cellular NSF Protein in Entry and Nuclear Egress of Budded Virions of Autographa californica Multiple NucleopolyhedrovirusABSTRACT In eukaryotic cells, the s oluble N -ethylmaleimide- s ensitive f actor (NSF) a ttachment protein re ceptor (SNARE) proteins comprise the minimal machinery that triggers fusion of transport vesicles with their target membranes. Comparative studies revealed that genes encoding the components of the SNARE system are highly conserved in yeast, insect, and human genomes. Upon infection of insect cells by the virus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the transcript levels of most SNARE genes initially were upregulated. We found that overexpression of dominant-negative (DN) forms of NSF or knockdown of the expression of NSF, the key regulator of the SNARE system, significantly affected infectious AcMNPV production. In cells expressing DN NSF, entering virions were trapped in the cytoplasm or transported to the nucleus with low efficiency. The presence of DN NSF also moderately reduced trafficking of the viral envelope glycoprotein GP64 to the plasma membrane but dramatically inhibited production of infectious budded virions (BV). Transmission electron microscopy analysis of infections in cells expressing DN NSF revealed that progeny nucleocapsids were retained in a perinuclear space surrounded by inner and outer nuclear membranes. Several baculovirus conserved (core) proteins (Ac76, Ac78, GP41, Ac93, and Ac103) that are important for infectiousmore »
Ancient and recent introgression shape the evolutionary history of pollinator adaptation and speciation in a model monkeyflower radiation (Mimulus section Erythranthe)Buerkle, Alex (Ed.)Inferences about past processes of adaptation and speciation require a gene-scale and genome-wide understanding of the evolutionary history of diverging taxa. In this study, we use genome-wide capture of nuclear gene sequences, plus skimming of organellar sequences, to investigate the phylogenomics of monkeyflowers in Mimulus section Erythranthe (27 accessions from seven species ) . Taxa within Erythranthe , particularly the parapatric and putatively sister species M . lewisii (bee-pollinated) and M . cardinalis (hummingbird-pollinated), have been a model system for investigating the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation for over five decades. Across >8000 nuclear loci, multiple methods resolve a predominant species tree in which M . cardinalis groups with other hummingbird-pollinated taxa (37% of gene trees), rather than being sister to M . lewisii (32% of gene trees). We independently corroborate a single evolution of hummingbird pollination syndrome in Erythranthe by demonstrating functional redundancy in genetic complementation tests of floral traits in hybrids; together, these analyses overturn a textbook case of pollination-syndrome convergence. Strong asymmetries in allele sharing (Patterson’s D-statistic and related tests) indicate that gene tree discordance reflects ancient and recent introgression rather than incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with abundant introgression blurring the history of divergence, low-recombination andmore »