skip to main content

Title: The study of 11 contact binaries with mass ratios less than 0.1

Multi-band photometric observations of 11 totally eclipsing contact binaries were carried out. Applying the Wilson–Devinney program, photometric solutions were obtained. There are two W-subtype systems, which are CRTS J133031.1+161202 and CRTS J154254.0+324652, and the rest of the systems are A-subtype systems. CRTS J154254.0 + 324652 has the highest fill-out factor with 94.3 per cent, and the lowest object is CRTS J155009.2 + 493639 with only 18.9 per cent. The mass ratios of the 11 systems are all less than 0.1, which means that they are extremely low-mass ratio binary systems. We performed period variation investigation and found that the orbital periods of three systems decrease slowly, which may be caused by the materials may transfer from the primary component to the secondary component, and those of six systems increase slowly, which indicates that the materials may transfer from the secondary component to the primary component. LAMOST low-resolution spectra of four objects were analysed, and using the spectral subtraction technique, Hα emission line was detected, which means that the four objects exhibit chromospheric activity. In order to understand their evolutionary status, the mass–luminosity and mass–radius diagrams were plotted. The two diagrams indicate that the primary component is in the main sequence evolution stage, and the secondary component is above TAMS, indicating that they are over-luminous. To determine whether the 11 systems are in a stable state, the ratio of spin angular momentum to orbital angular momentum (Js/Jo) and the instability parameters were calculated, and we argued that CRTS J234634.7 + 222824 is on the verge of a merger.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Medium: X Size: p. 5760-5774
["p. 5760-5774"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Because many classical Be stars may owe their nature to mass and angular-momentum transfer in a close binary, the present masses, temperatures, and radii of their components are of high interest for comparison to stellar evolution models. ObjectκDra is a 61.5 day single-lined binary with a B6 IIIe primary. With the CHARA Array instruments MIRC/MIRC-X and MYSTIC, we detected the secondary at (approximately photospheric) flux ratios of 1.49% ± 0.10% and 1.63% ± 0.09% in theHandKband, respectively. From a large and diverse optical spectroscopic database, only the radial velocity curve of the Be star could be extracted. However, employing the parallaxes from Hipparcos and Gaia, which agree within their nominal 1σerrors, we could derive the total mass and found component masses of 3.65 ± 0.48 and 0.426 ± 0.043Mfor the Be star and the companion, respectively. Previous cross-correlation of the observed FUV spectrum with O-type subdwarf (sdO) spectral model templates had not detected a companion belonging to the hot sdO population known from ∼20 earlier-type Be stars. Guided by our full 3D orbital solution, we found a strong cross-correlation signal for a stripped subdwarf B-type companion (FUV flux ratio of 2.3% ± 0.5%), enabling the first firm characterization of such a star and makingκDra the first mid- to late-type Be star with a directly observed subdwarf companion.

    more » « less
  2. Context. Luminous blue variables (LBVs) are characterised by strong photometric and spectroscopic variability. They are thought to be in a transitory phase between O-type stars on the main sequence and the Wolf-Rayet stage. Recent studies also evoked the possibility that they might be formed through binary interaction. Only a few are known in binary systems so far, but their multiplicity fraction is still uncertain. Aims. We derive the binary fraction of the Galactic LBV population. We combine multi-epoch spectroscopy and long-baseline interferometry to probe separations from 0.1 to 120 mas around confirmed and candidate LBVs. Methods. We used a cross-correlation technique to measure the radial velocities of these objects. We identified spectroscopic binaries through significant radial velocity variability with an amplitude larger than 35 km s −1 . We also investigated the observational biases to take them into account when we established the intrinsic binary fraction. We used CANDID to detect interferometric companions, derive their flux fractions, and their positions on the sky. Results. From the multi-epoch spectroscopy, we derive an observed spectroscopic binary fraction of 26 −10 +16 %. Considering period and mass ratio ranges from log( P orb ) = 0 − 3 (i.e. from 1 to 1000 days), q  = 0.1 − 1.0, and a representative set of orbital parameter distributions, we find a bias-corrected binary fraction of 62 −24 +38 %. Based on data of the interferometric campaign, we detect a binary fraction of 70 ± 9% at projected separations between 1 and 120 mas. Based on the derived primary diameters and considering the distances of these objects, we measure for the first time the exact radii of Galactic LBVs to be between 100 and 650  R ⊙ . This means that it is unlikely that short-period systems are included among LBV-like stars. Conclusions. This analysis shows for the first time that the binary fraction in the Galactic LBV population is large. If they form through single-star evolution, their orbit must be large initially. If they form through a binary channel, the implication is that either massive stars in short binary systems must undergo a phase of fully non-conservative mass transfer to be able to sufficiently widen the orbit to form an LBV, or that LBVs form through merging in initially binary or triple systems. Interferometric follow-up would provide the distributions of orbital parameters at more advanced stages and would serve to quantitatively test the binary evolution in massive stars. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Close binary interactions may play a critical role in the formation of the rapidly rotating Be stars. Mass transfer can result in a mass gainer star spun up by the accretion of mass and angular momentum, while the mass donor is stripped of its envelope to form a hot and faint helium star. Far-UV spectroscopy has led to the detection of about 20 such binary Be+sdO systems. Here we report on a 3 yr program of high-quality spectroscopy designed to determine the orbital periods and physical properties of five Be binary systems. These binaries are long orbital period systems withP= 95–237 days and small semiamplitudeK1< 11 km s−1. We combined the Be star velocities with prior sdO measurements to obtain mass ratios. A Doppler tomography algorithm shows the presence of the Heiiλ4686 line in the faint spectrum of the hot companion in four of the targets. We discuss the observed line variability and show evidence of phase-locked variations in the emission profiles of HD 157832, suggesting a possible disk spiral density wave due to the presence of the companion star. The stripped companions in HD 113120 and HD 137387 may have a mass larger than 1.4M, indicating that they could be progenitors of Type Ib and Ic supernovae.

    more » « less
  4. ABSTRACT We investigate the spatial structure and evolution of star formation and the interstellar medium (ISM) in interacting galaxies. We use an extensive suite of parsec-scale galaxy-merger simulations (stellar mass ratio = 2.5:1), which employs the ‘Feedback In Realistic Environments-2’ model (fire-2). This framework resolves star formation, feedback processes, and the multiphase structure of the ISM. We focus on the galaxy-pair stages of interaction. We find that close encounters substantially augment cool (H i) and cold-dense (H2) gas budgets, elevating the formation of new stars as a result. This enhancement is centrally concentrated for the secondary galaxy, and more radially extended for the primary. This behaviour is weakly dependent on orbital geometry. We also find that galaxies with elevated global star formation rate (SFR) experience intense nuclear SFR enhancement, driven by high levels of either star formation efficiency (SFE) or available cold-dense gas fuel. Galaxies with suppressed global SFR also contain a nuclear cold-dense gas reservoir, but low SFE levels diminish SFR in the central region. Concretely, in the majority of cases, SFR enhancement in the central kiloparsec is fuel-driven (55 per cent for the secondary, 71 per cent for the primary) – while central SFR suppression is efficiency-driven (91 per cent for the secondary, 97 per cent for the primary). Our numerical predictions underscore the need of substantially larger, and/or merger-dedicated, spatially resolved galaxy surveys – capable of examining vast and diverse samples of interacting systems – coupled with multiwavelength campaigns aimed to capture their internal ISM structure. 
    more » « less

    Eclipsing binaries are important benchmark objects to test and calibrate stellar structure and evolution models. This is especially true for binaries with a fully convective M-dwarf component for which direct measurements of these stars’ masses and radii are difficult using other techniques. Within the potential of M-dwarfs to be exoplanet host stars, the accuracy of theoretical predictions of their radius and effective temperature as a function of their mass is an active topic of discussion. Not only the parameters of transiting exoplanets but also the success of future atmospheric characterization relies on accurate theoretical predictions. We present the analysis of five eclipsing binaries with low-mass stellar companions out of a subsample of 23, for which we obtained ultra-high-precision light curves using the CHEOPS satellite. The observation of their primary and secondary eclipses are combined with spectroscopic measurements to precisely model the primary parameters and derive the M-dwarfs mass, radius, surface gravity, and effective temperature estimates using the PYCHEOPS data analysis software. Combining these results to the same set of parameters derived from TESS light curves, we find very good agreement (better than 1 per cent for radius and better than 0.2 per cent for surface gravity). We also analyse the importance of precise orbits from radial velocity measurements and find them to be crucial to derive M-dwarf radii in a regime below 5 per cent accuracy. These results add five valuable data points to the mass–radius diagram of fully convective M-dwarfs.

    more » « less