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Title: Experimental study of quartz inclusions in garnet at pressures up to 3.0 GPa: evaluating validity of the quartz-in-garnet inclusion elastic thermobarometer
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Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
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National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract Garnet–kyanite–staurolite assemblages with large, late porphyroblasts of amphibole form garbenschists in Ordovician volcaniclastic rocks lying immediately south of the Pearya terrane on northernmost Ellesmere Island, Canada. The schist, which together with carbonate olistoliths makes up the Petersen Bay Assemblage (PBA), displays a series of parallel isograds that mark an increase in metamorphic grade over a distance of 10 km towards the contact with Pearya; however, a steep, brittle Cenozoic strike-slip fault with an unknown amount displacement disturbs the earlier accretionary relationship. The late amphibole growth, probably due to fluid ingress, is clear evidence of disequilibrium conditions in the garbenschist. In order to recover the P–T history of the schists, we construct isochemical phase equilibrium models for a nearby garnet–mica schist that escaped the fluid event and compare the results to quartz inclusion in garnet (QuiG) barometry for a garbenschist and the metapelitic garnet schist. Quartz inclusions are confined to garnet cores and the QuiG results, combined with Ti-in-biotite and garnet–biotite thermometry, delineate a prograde path from 480 to 600°C and 0.7 to 0.9 GPa. This path agrees with growth zoning in garnet deduced from X-ray maps of the spessartine component in garnet. The peak conditions obtained from pseudosection modelling using effective bulk composition and the intersection of garnet rim with matrix biotite and white mica isopleths in the metapelite are 665°C at ≤0.85 GPa. Three generations of monazite (I, II and III) were identified by textural characterization, geochemical composition (REE and Y concentrations) and U–Pb ages measured by ion microprobe. Monazite I occurs in the matrix and as inclusions in garnet rims and grew at peak P–T conditions at 397 ± 2 Ma (2σ) from the breakdown of allanite. Monazite II forms overgrowths on matrix Monazite I grains that are oriented parallel to the main schistosity and yield ages of 385 ± 2 Ma. Monazite III, found only in the garbenschist, is 374 ± 6 Ma, which is interpreted as the time of amphibole growth during fluid infiltration at lower temperature and pressure on a clockwise P–T path that remained in the kyanite stability field. These results point to a relatively short (≈12 Myr) Barrovian metamorphic event that affected the schists of the PBA. An obvious heat source is lacking in the adjacent Pearya terrane, but we speculate it was large Devonian plutons—similar to the 390 ± 10 Ma Cape Woods granite located 40 km across strike from the fault—that have been excised by strike-slip. Arc fragments that are correlative to the PBA are low grade; they never saw the heat and were not directly involved in Pearya accretion. 
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  2. Abstract

    Metamorphic rocks from the Connecticut Valley Trough (CVT), Vermont, and Massachusetts, have been examined using quartz‐in‐garnet (QuiG) and conventional thermobarometry, thermodynamic reaction modelling, diffusion modelling, and40Ar/39Ar thermochronology to constrain theirP–T–tpaths during Acadian metamorphism and subsequent exhumation. Numerous samples, collected in the vicinity of the Acadian domes, contain garnet porphyroblasts that display cloudy zones characterized by numerous fluid inclusions and modified garnet compositions associated with the replacement of the original garnet by biotite±muscovite±plagioclase±quartz±lowXgrs/enrichedXsps. QuiG and conventional thermobarometry constrain both the conditions of garnet nucleation and peakP–Tconditions to have occurred at ~0.85–1.05 GPa, ~550–600°C. Most notably, QuiG barometry was performed on inclusions adjacent to these reaction zones in conjunction with Gibbs method reaction modelling to reveal that these dissolution–reprecipitation reactions occurred during nearly isothermal decompression from the peakP–Tconditions to around ~0.3 GPa, 550°C. Diffusion modelling reveals that the Mn zoning profiles created during garnet resorption that accompanied decompression formed in less thanc. 3 Ma, which constrains the tectonic exhumation to have occurred at 8–10 mm/year. Subsequent cooling to 500°C occurred rapidly at a rate of 100°C/Ma, followed by slower cooling reaching 1.7°C /Ma by the mid Carboniferous. This is the first reported example of QuiG barometry revealing a multi‐stage metamorphic history and highlights the utility of this method for unravelling complex metamorphic terranes.

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  3. Abstract

    Mineral inclusions are ubiquitous in metamorphic rocks and elastic models for host‐inclusion pairs have become frequently used tools for investigating pressure–temperature (P–T) conditions of mineral entrapment. Inclusions can retain remnant pressures () that are relatable to their entrapmentP–Tconditions using an isotropic elastic model andP–T–Vequations of state for host and inclusion minerals. Elastic models are used to constrainP–Tcurves, known as isomekes, which represent the possible inclusion entrapment conditions. However, isomekes require a temperature estimate for use as a thermobarometer. Previous studies obtained temperature estimates from thermometric methods external of the host‐inclusion system. In this study, we present the firstP–Testimates of quartz inclusion entrapment by integrating the quartz‐in‐garnet elastic model with titanium concentration measurements of inclusions and a Ti‐in‐quartz solubility model (QuiG‐TiQ). QuiG‐TiQ was used to determine entrapmentP–Tconditions of quartz inclusions in garnet from a quartzofeldspathic gneiss from Goodenough Island, part of the (ultra)high‐pressure terrane of Papua New Guinea. Raman spectroscopic measurements of the 128, 206, and 464 cm−1bands of quartz were used to calculate inclusion pressures using hydrostatic pressure calibrations (), a volume strain calculation (), and elastic tensor calculation (), that account for deviatoric stress.values calculated from the 128, 206, and 464 cm−1bands’ hydrostatic calibrations are significantly different from one another with values of 1.8 ± 0.1, 2.0 ± 0.1, and 2.5 ± 0.1 kbar, respectively. We quantified elastic anisotropy using the 128, 206 and 464 cm−1Raman band frequencies of quartz inclusions and stRAinMAN software (Angel, Murri, Mihailova, & Alvaro, 2019, 234:129–140). The amount of elastic anisotropy in quartz inclusions varied by ~230%. A subset of inclusions with nearly isotropic strains gives an averageandof 2.5 ± 0.2 and 2.6 ± 0.2 kbar, respectively. Depending on the sign and magnitude, inclusions with large anisotropic strains respectively overestimate or underestimate inclusion pressures and are significantly different (<3.8 kbar) from the inclusions that have nearly isotropic strains. Titanium concentrations were measured in quartz inclusions exposed at the surface of the garnet. The average Ti‐in‐quartz isopleth (19 ± 1 ppm [2σ]) intersects the average QuiG isomeke at 10.2 ± 0.3 kbar and 601 ± 6°C, which are interpreted as theP–Tconditions of quartzofeldspathic gneiss garnet growth and entrapment of quartz inclusions. TheP–Tintersection point of QuiG and Ti‐in‐quartz univariant curves represents mechanical and chemical equilibrium during crystallization of garnet, quartz, and rutile. These three minerals are common in many bulk rock compositions that crystallize over a wide range ofP–Tconditions thus permitting application of QuiG‐TiQ to many metamorphic rocks.

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  4. null (Ed.)
    Diamond and coesite are classic indicators of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP; ≥100-kilometer depth) metamorphism, but they readily recrystallize during exhumation. Crystallographically oriented pyroxene and amphibole exsolution lamellae in garnet document decomposed supersilicic UHP majoritic garnet originally stable at diamond-grade conditions, but majoritic precursors have only been quantitatively demonstrated in mafic and ultramafic rocks. Moreover, controversy persists regarding which silicates majoritic garnet breakdown produces. We present a method for reconstructing precursor majoritic garnet chemistry in metasedimentary Appalachian gneisses containing garnets preserving concentric zones of crystallographically oriented lamellae including quartz, amphibole, and sodium phlogopite. We link this to novel quartz-garnet crystallographic orientation data. The results reveal majoritic precursors stable at ≥175-kilometer depth and that quartz and mica may exsolve from garnet. Large UHP terranes in the European Caledonides formed during collision of the paleocontinents Baltica and Laurentia; we demonstrate UHP metamorphism from the microcontinent-continent convergence characterizing the contiguous and coeval Appalachian orogen. 
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