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Title: Fluorescence Modulation by Amines: Mechanistic Insights into Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) and Beyond
Amine groups are common constituents of organic dyes and play important roles in tuning fluorescence properties. In particular, intensive research works have demonstrated the tendency and capabilities of amines in influencing chromophore brightness. Such properties have been explained by multiple mechanisms spanning from twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) to the energy gap law and beyond, which introduce additional nonradiative energy dissipation pathways. In this review, we aim to provide a focused overview of the mechanistic insights mainly for the TICT mechanism, accompanied by a few other less common or influential fluorescence quenching mechanisms in the amine-containing fluorescent molecules. Various aspects of current scientific findings including the rational design and synthesis of organic chromophores, theoretical calculations, steady-state and time-resolved electronic and vibrational spectroscopies are reviewed. These in-depth understandings of how the amine groups with diverse chemical structures at various atomic sites affect excited-state nonradiative decay pathways will facilitate the strategic and targeted development of fluorophores with desired emission properties as versatile chemosensors for broad applications.
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National Science Foundation
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