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Title: Communication Complexity of Inner Product in Symmetric Normed Spaces
We introduce and study the communication complexity of computing the inner product of two vectors, where the input is restricted w.r.t. a norm N on the space ℝⁿ. Here, Alice and Bob hold two vectors v,u such that ‖v‖_N ≤ 1 and ‖u‖_{N^*} ≤ 1, where N^* is the dual norm. The goal is to compute their inner product ⟨v,u⟩ up to an ε additive term. The problem is denoted by IP_N, and generalizes important previously studied problems, such as: (1) Computing the expectation 𝔼_{x∼𝒟}[f(x)] when Alice holds 𝒟 and Bob holds f is equivalent to IP_{𝓁₁}. (2) Computing v^TAv where Alice has a symmetric matrix with bounded operator norm (denoted S_∞) and Bob has a vector v where ‖v‖₂ = 1. This problem is complete for quantum communication complexity and is equivalent to IP_{S_∞}. We systematically study IP_N, showing the following results, near tight in most cases: 1) For any symmetric norm N, given ‖v‖_N ≤ 1 and ‖u‖_{N^*} ≤ 1 there is a randomized protocol using 𝒪̃(ε^{-6} log n) bits of communication that returns a value in ⟨u,v⟩±ε with probability 2/3 - we will denote this by ℛ_{ε,1/3}(IP_N) ≤ 𝒪̃(ε^{-6} log n). In a special case where N = 𝓁_p more » and N^* = 𝓁_q for p^{-1} + q^{-1} = 1, we obtain an improved bound ℛ_{ε,1/3}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≤ 𝒪(ε^{-2} log n), nearly matching the lower bound ℛ_{ε, 1/3}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≥ Ω(min(n, ε^{-2})). 2) One way communication complexity ℛ^{→}_{ε,δ}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≤ 𝒪(ε^{-max(2,p)}⋅ log n/ε), and a nearly matching lower bound ℛ^{→}_{ε, 1/3}(IP_{𝓁_p}) ≥ Ω(ε^{-max(2,p)}) for ε^{-max(2,p)} ≪ n. 3) One way communication complexity ℛ^{→}_{ε,δ}(N) for a symmetric norm N is governed by the distortion of the embedding 𝓁_∞^k into N. Specifically, while a small distortion embedding easily implies a lower bound Ω(k), we show that, conversely, non-existence of such an embedding implies protocol with communication k^𝒪(log log k) log² n. 4) For arbitrary origin symmetric convex polytope P, we show ℛ_{ε,1/3}(IP_{N}) ≤ 𝒪(ε^{-2} log xc(P)), where N is the unique norm for which P is a unit ball, and xc(P) is the extension complexity of P (i.e. the smallest number of inequalities describing some polytope P' s.t. P is projection of P'). « less
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Tauman Kalai, Yael
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Leibniz international proceedings in informatics
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National Science Foundation
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