This content will become publicly available on January 2, 2024
 Editors:
 Tauman Kalai, Yael
 Award ID(s):
 2008733
 Publication Date:
 NSFPAR ID:
 10395285
 Journal Name:
 Leibniz international proceedings in informatics
 Volume:
 251
 Page Range or eLocationID:
 4:14:22
 ISSN:
 18688969
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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Chakrabarti, Amit ; Swamy, Chaitanya (Ed.)A Boolean maximum constraint satisfaction problem, MaxCSP(f), is specified by a predicate f:{1,1}^k → {0,1}. An nvariable instance of MaxCSP(f) consists of a list of constraints, each of which applies f to k distinct literals drawn from the n variables. For k = 2, Chou, Golovnev, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2020] obtained explicit ratios characterizing the √ nspace streaming approximability of every predicate. For k ≥ 3, Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] proved a general dichotomy theorem for √ nspace sketching algorithms: For every f, there exists α(f) ∈ (0,1] such that for every ε > 0, MaxCSP(f) is (α(f)ε)approximable by an O(log n)space linear sketching algorithm, but (α(f)+ε)approximation sketching algorithms require Ω(√n) space. In this work, we give closedform expressions for the sketching approximation ratios of multiple families of symmetric Boolean functions. Letting α'_k = 2^{(k1)} (1k^{2})^{(k1)/2}, we show that for odd k ≥ 3, α(kAND) = α'_k, and for even k ≥ 2, α(kAND) = 2α'_{k+1}. Thus, for every k, kAND can be (2o(1))2^{k}approximated by O(log n)space sketching algorithms; we contrast this with a lower bound of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, Velingker, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] implying that streaming (2+ε)2^{k}approximations require Ω(n)more »

Memory hard functions (MHFs) are an important cryptographic primitive that are used to design egalitarian proofs of work and in the construction of moderately expensive keyderivation functions resistant to bruteforce attacks. Broadly speaking, MHFs can be divided into two categories: datadependent memory hard functions (dMHFs) and dataindependent memory hard functions (iMHFs). iMHFs are resistant to certain sidechannel attacks as the memory access pattern induced by the honest evaluation algorithm is independent of the potentially sensitive input e.g., password. While dMHFs are potentially vulnerable to sidechannel attacks (the induced memory access pattern might leak useful information to a bruteforce attacker), they can achieve higher cumulative memory complexity (CMC) in comparison than an iMHF. In particular, any iMHF that can be evaluated in N steps on a sequential machine has CMC at most 𝒪((N^2 log log N)/log N). By contrast, the dMHF scrypt achieves maximal CMC Ω(N^2)  though the CMC of scrypt would be reduced to just 𝒪(N) after a sidechannel attack. In this paper, we introduce the notion of computationally dataindependent memory hard functions (ciMHFs). Intuitively, we require that memory access pattern induced by the (randomized) ciMHF evaluation algorithm appears to be independent from the standpoint of a computationally boundedmore »

Abstract We continue the program of proving circuit lower bounds via circuit satisfiability algorithms. So far, this program has yielded several concrete results, proving that functions in
and other complexity classes do not have small circuits (in the worst case and/or on average) from various circuit classes$\mathsf {Quasi}\text {}\mathsf {NP} = \mathsf {NTIME}[n^{(\log n)^{O(1)}}]$ $\mathrm{Quasi}\mathrm{NP}=\mathrm{NTIME}\left[{n}^{{\left(\mathrm{log}n\right)}^{O\left(1\right)}}\right]$ , by showing that$\mathcal { C}$ $C$ admits nontrivial satisfiability and/or$\mathcal { C}$ $C$# SAT algorithms which beat exhaustive search by a minor amount. In this paper, we present a new strong lower bound consequence of having a nontrivial# SAT algorithm for a circuit class . Say that a symmetric Boolean function${\mathcal C}$ $C$f (x _{1},…,x _{n}) issparse if it outputs 1 onO (1) values of . We show that for every sparse${\sum }_{i} x_{i}$ ${\sum}_{i}{x}_{i}$f , and for all “typical” , faster$\mathcal { C}$ $C$# SAT algorithms for circuits imply lower bounds against the circuit class$\mathcal { C}$ $C$ , which may be$f \circ \mathcal { C}$ $f\circ C$stronger than itself. In particular:$\mathcal { C}$ $C$# SAT algorithms forn ^{k}size circuits running in 2^{n}/$\mathcal { C}$ $C$n ^{k}time (for allk ) implyN E X P does not have circuits of polynomial size.$(f \circ \mathcal { C})$ $(f\circ C)$# SAT algorithms for size$2^{n^{{\varepsilon }}}$ ${2}^{{n}^{\epsilon}}$ circuits running in$\mathcal { C}$ $C$ time (for some$2^{nn^{{\varepsilon }}}$ ${2}^{n{n}^{\epsilon}}$ε > 0) implyQ u a s i N P does not have circuits of polynomial size.$(f \circ \mathcal { C})$ $(f\circ C)$Applying
# SAT algorithms from the literature, one immediate corollary of our results is thatQ u a s i N P does not haveE M A J ∘A C C ^{0}∘T H R circuits of polynomialmore » 
The Sparsest Cut is a fundamental optimization problem that have been extensively studied. For planar inputs the problem is in P and can be solved in Õ(n 3 ) time if all vertex weights are 1. Despite a significant amount of effort, the best algorithms date back to the early 90’s and can only achieve O(log n)approximation in Õ(n) time or 3.5approximation in Õ(n 2 ) time [Rao, STOC92]. Our main result is an Ω(n 2−ε ) lower bound for Sparsest Cut even in planar graphs with unit vertex weights, under the (min, +)Convolution conjecture, showing that approxima tions are inevitable in the nearlinear time regime. To complement the lower bound, we provide a 3.3approximation in nearlinear time, improving upon the 25year old result of Rao in both time and accuracy. We also show that our lower bound is not far from optimal by observing an exact algorithm with running time Õ(n 5/2 ) improving upon the Õ(n 3 ) algorithm of Park and Phillips [STOC93]. Our lower bound accomplishes a repeatedly raised challenge by being the first finegrained lower bound for a natural planar graph problem in P. Building on our construction we prove nearquadratic lower bounds under SETHmore »

In a recent work (Ghazi et al., SODA 2016), the authors with Komargodski and Kothari initiated the study of communication with contextual uncertainty, a setup aiming to understand how efficient communication is possible when the communicating parties imperfectly share a huge context. In this setting, Alice is given a function f and an input string x, and Bob is given a function g and an input string y. The pair (x,y) comes from a known distribution mu and f and g are guaranteed to be close under this distribution. Alice and Bob wish to compute g(x,y) with high probability. The lack of agreement between Alice and Bob on the function that is being computed captures the uncertainty in the context. The previous work showed that any problem with oneway communication complexity k in the standard model (i.e., without uncertainty, in other words, under the promise that f=g) has publiccoin communication at most O(k(1+I)) bits in the uncertain case, where I is the mutual information between x and y. Moreover, a lower bound of Omega(sqrt{I}) bits on the publiccoin uncertain communication was also shown. However, an important question that was left open is related to the power that public randomness bringsmore »