We consider inference problems for high-dimensional (HD) functional data with a dense number of T repeated measurements taken for a large number of p variables from a small number of n experimental units. The spatial and temporal dependence, high dimensionality, and dense number of repeated measurements pose theoretical and computational challenges. This paper has two aims; our first aim is to solve the theoretical and computational challenges in testing equivalence among covariance matrices from HD functional data. The second aim is to provide computationally efficient and tuning-free tools with guaranteed stochastic error control. The weak convergence of the stochastic process formed by the test statistics is established under the “large p, large T, and small n” setting. If the null is rejected, we further show that the locations of the change points can be estimated consistently. The estimator's rate of convergence is shown to depend on the data dimension, sample size, number of repeated measurements, and signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that our proposed computation algorithms can significantly reduce the computation time and are applicable to real-world data with a large number of HD-repeated measurements (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data). Simulation results demonstrate both the finite sample performance and computational effectiveness of our proposed procedures. We observe that the empirical size of the test is well controlled at the nominal level, and the locations of multiple change points can be accurately identified. An application to fMRI data demonstrates that our proposed methods can identify event boundaries in the preface of the television series Sherlock. Code to implement the procedures is available in an R package named TechPhD.
Cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistics are widely used in the change point inference and identification. For the problem of testing for existence of a change point in an independent sample generated from the mean-shift model, we introduce a Gaussian multiplier bootstrap to calibrate critical values of the CUSUM test statistics in high dimensions. The proposed bootstrap CUSUM test is fully data dependent and it has strong theoretical guarantees under arbitrary dependence structures and mild moment conditions. Specifically, we show that with a boundary removal parameter the bootstrap CUSUM test enjoys the uniform validity in size under the null and it achieves the minimax separation rate under the sparse alternatives when the dimension p can be larger than the sample size n.
Once a change point is detected, we estimate the change point location by maximising the ℓ∞-norm of the generalised CUSUM statistics at two different weighting scales corresponding to covariance stationary and non-stationary CUSUM statistics. For both estimators, we derive their rates of convergence and show that dimension impacts the rates only through logarithmic factors, which implies that consistency of the CUSUM estimators is possible when p is much larger than n. In the presence of multiple change points, we propose a principled bootstrap-assisted binary segmentation (BABS) algorithm to dynamically adjust the change point detection rule and recursively estimate their locations. We derive its rate of convergence under suitable signal separation and strength conditions.
The results derived in this paper are non-asymptotic and we provide extensive simulation studies to assess the finite sample performance. The empirical evidence shows an encouraging agreement with our theoretical results.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Oxford University Press
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B: Statistical Methodology
- Medium: X Size: p. 247-270
- ["p. 247-270"]
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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