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- 2D Materials
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- National Science Foundation
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Monolayer MoS 2 has long been considered as the most promising candidate for wearable photovoltaic devices. However, its photovoltaic efficiency is restricted by its large band gap (2.0 eV). Though the band gap can be reduced by increasing the number of layers, the indirect band gap nature of the resulting multilayer MoS 2 is unfavorable. Herein, we report a theoretical discovery of the hitherto unknown symmetry-broken phase (denoted as 1T d ) of monolayer MoS 2 through a swarm structure search. The 1T d phase has a distorted octahedral coordinated pattern of Mo, and its direct band gap of 1.27 eV approaches the optimal value of 1.34 eV that gives the Shockley–Queisser limit for photovoltaic efficiency. Importantly, the direct band gap nature persists in thin films with multilayers owing to extremely weak vdW forces between adjacent 1T d layers. The theoretical photovoltaic efficiency at 30 nm thickness reaches ∼33.3%, which is the highest conversion efficiency among all the thin-film solar cell absorbers known thus far. Furthermore, several feasible strategies including appropriate electron injection and annealing methods were proposed to synthesize the 1T d phase. Once synthesized, the superior photovoltaic properties of the 1T d phase may lead to the developmentmore »
Phase engineering of layered anode materials during ion-intercalation in Van der Waal heterostructures
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a class of 2D materials demonstrating promising properties, such as high capacities and cycling stabilities, making them strong candidates to replace graphitic anodes in lithium-ion batteries. However, certain TMDs, for instance, MoS2, undergo a phase transformation from 2H to 1T during intercalation that can affect the mobility of the intercalating ions, the anode voltage, and the reversible capacity. In contrast, select TMDs, for instance, NbS2and VS2, resist this type of phase transformation during Li-ion intercalation. This manuscript uses density functional theory simulations to investigate the phase transformation of TMD heterostructures during Li-, Na-, and K-ion intercalation. The simulations suggest that while stacking MoS2layers with NbS2layers is unable to limit this 2H → 1T transformation in MoS2during Li-ion intercalation, the interfaces effectively stabilize the 2H phase of MoS2during Na- and K-ion intercalation. However, stacking MoS2layers with VS2is able to suppress the 2H → 1T transformation of MoS2during the intercalation of Li, Na, and K-ions. The creation of TMD heterostructures by stacking MoS2with layers of non-transforming TMDs also renders theoretical capacities and electrical conductivities that are higher than that of bulk MoS2.
Abstract Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) is one of the most studied two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides that is being investigated for various optoelectronic properties, such as catalysis, sensors, photovoltaics, and batteries. One such property that makes this material attractive is the ease in which 2D MoS 2 can be converted between the semiconducting (2H) and metallic/semi-metallic (1T/1T′) phases or heavily n-type doped 2H phase with ion intercalation, strain, or excess negative charge. Using n -butyl lithium (BuLi) immersion treatments, we achieve 2H MoS 2 monolayers that are heavily n-type doped with shorter immersion times (10–120 mins) or conversion to the 1T/1T′ phase with longer immersion times (6–24 h); however, these doped/converted monolayers are not stable and promptly revert back to the initial 2H phase upon exposure to air. To overcome this issue and maintain the modification of the monolayer MoS 2 upon air exposure, we use BuLi treatments plus surface functionalization p-(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NPh-MoS 2 (Et 2 N-MoS 2 )—to maintain heavily n-type doped 2H phase or the 1T/1T′ phase, which is preserved for over two weeks when on indium tin oxide or sapphire substrates. We also determine that the low sheet resistance andmore »
Two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, have generated much interest due to their strain-sensitive electronic, optical, magnetic, superconducting, or topological properties. Harnessing control over their strain state may enable new technologies that operate by controlling these materials’ properties in devices such as straintronic transistors. Piezoelectric oxides have been proposed as one method to control such strain states on the device scale. However, there are few studies of how conformal 2D materials remain on oxide materials with respect to dynamic applications of the strain. Non-conformality may lead to non-optimal strain transfer. In this work, we explore this aspect of oxide-2D adhesion in the nanoscale switching of the substrate structural phase in thin 1T′-MoTe 2 attached to a mixed-phase thin-film BiFeO 3 (BFO), a multiferroic oxide with an electric-field induced structural phase transition that can generate mechanical strains of up to 2%. We observe that flake thickness impacts the conformality of 1T′-MoTe 2 to structural changes in BFO, but below four layers, 1T′-MoTe 2 fully conforms to the nanoscale BFO structural changes. The conformality of few-layer 1T′-MoTe 2 suggests that BFO is an excellent candidate for deterministic, nanoscale strain control for 2D materials.
Enhanced performance of Mo 2 P monolayer as lithium-ion battery anode materials by carbon and nitrogen doping: a first principles studyBy means of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we explored the potential of carbon- and nitrogen-doped Mo 2 P (CMP and NMP) layered materials as the representative of transition metal phosphides (TMPs) for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode materials, paying special attention to the synergistic effects of the dopants. Both CMP and NMP have exceptional stabilities and excellent electronic conductivity, and a high theoretical maximum storage capacity of ∼ 486 mA h g −1 . Li-ion diffusion barriers on the two-dimensional (2D) CMP and NMP surfaces are extremely low (∼0.036 eV), and it is expected that on these 2D layers Li can diffuse 10 4 times faster than that on MoS 2 and graphene at room temperature, and both monolayers have relatively low average open-circuit voltage (0.38 and 0.4 eV). All these exceptional properties make CMP and NMP monolayers as promising candidates for high-performance LIB anode materials, which also demonstrates that simple doping is an effective strategy to enhance the performance of anode materials in rechargeable batteries.