skip to main content

Title: Two-dimensional infrared-Raman spectroscopy as a probe of water’s tetrahedrality

Two-dimensional spectroscopic techniques combining terahertz (THz), infrared (IR), and visible pulses offer a wealth of information about coupling among vibrational modes in molecular liquids, thus providing a promising probe of their local structure. However, the capabilities of these spectroscopies are still largely unexplored due to experimental limitations and inherently weak nonlinear signals. Here, through a combination of equilibrium-nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) and a tailored spectrum decomposition scheme, we identify a relationship between the tetrahedral order of liquid water and its two-dimensional IR-IR-Raman (IIR) spectrum. The structure-spectrum relationship can explain the temperature dependence of the spectral features corresponding to the anharmonic coupling between low-frequency intermolecular and high-frequency intramolecular vibrational modes of water. In light of these results, we propose new experiments and discuss the implications for the study of tetrahedrality of liquid water.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We simulate vibrational strong coupling (VSC) and vibrational ultrastrong coupling (V-USC) for liquid water with classical molecular dynamics simulations. When the cavity modes are resonantly coupled to the O−H stretch mode of liquid water, the infrared spectrum shows asymmetric Rabi splitting. The lower polariton (LP) may be suppressed or enhanced relative to the upper polariton (UP) depending on the frequency of the cavity mode. Moreover, although the static properties and the translational diffusion of water are not changed under VSC or V-USC, we do find the modification of the orientational autocorrelation function of H2O molecules especially under V-USC, which could play a role in ground-state chemistry.

    more » « less
  2. Chirality-selective vibrational sum frequency generation (chiral SFG) spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful technique for the study of biomolecular hydration water due to its sensitivity to the induced chirality of the first hydration shell. Thus far, water O–H vibrational bands in phase-resolved heterodyne chiral SFG spectra have been fit using one Lorentzian function per vibrational band, and the resulting fit has been used to infer the underlying frequency distribution. Here, we show that this approach may not correctly reveal the structure and dynamics of hydration water. Our analysis illustrates that the chiral SFG responses of symmetric and asymmetric O–H stretch modes of water have opposite phase and equal magnitude and are separated in energy by intramolecular vibrational coupling and a heterogeneous environment. The sum of the symmetric and asymmetric responses implies that an O–H stretch in a heterodyne chiral SFG spectrum should appear as two peaks with opposite phase and equal amplitude. Using pairs of Lorentzian functions to fit water O–H stretch vibrational bands, we improve spectral fitting of previously acquired experimental spectra of model β-sheet proteins and reduce the number of free parameters. The fitting allows us to estimate the vibrational frequency distribution and thus reveals the molecular interactions of water in hydration shells of biomolecules directly from chiral SFG spectra.

    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy is a common tool for measuring molecular organization and intermolecular interactions at interfaces. Peak intensity ratios are typically used to extract molecular information from one-dimensional spectra but vibrational coupling between surfactant molecules can manifest as signal depletion in one-dimensional spectra. Through a combination of experiment and theory, we demonstrate the emergence of vibrational exciton delocalization in infrared reflection–absorption spectra of soluble and insoluble surfactants at the air/water interface. Vibrational coupling causes a significant decrease in peak intensities corresponding to C–F vibrational modes of perfluorooctanoic acid molecules. Vibrational excitons also form between arachidic acid surfactants within a compressed monolayer, manifesting as signal reduction of C–H stretching modes. Ionic composition of the aqueous phase impacts surfactant intermolecular distance, thereby modulating vibrational coupling strength between surfactants. Our results serve as a cautionary tale against employing alkyl and fluoroalkyl vibrational peak intensities as proxies for concentration, although such analysis is ubiquitous in interface science. 
    more » « less
  4. The aqueous proton is a common and long-studied species in chemistry, yet there is currently intense interest devoted to understanding its hydration structure and transport dynamics. Typically described in terms of two limiting structures observed in gas-phase clusters, the Zundel H5O2+and Eigen H9O4+ions, the aqueous structure is less clear due to the heterogeneity of hydrogen bonding environments and room-temperature structural fluctuations in water. The linear infrared (IR) spectrum, which reports on structural configurations, is challenging to interpret because it appears as a continuum of absorption, and the underlying vibrational modes are strongly anharmonically coupled to each other. Recent two-dimensional IR (2D IR) experiments presented strong evidence for asymmetric Zundel-like motifs in solution, but true structure–spectrum correlations are missing and complicated by the anharmonicity of the system. In this study, we employ high-level vibrational self-consistent field/virtual state configuration interaction calculations to demonstrate that the 2D IR spectrum reports on a broad distribution of geometric configurations of the aqueous proton. We find that the diagonal 2D IR spectrum around 1200 cm−1is dominated by the proton stretch vibrations of Zundel-like and intermediate geometries, broadened by the heterogeneity of aqueous configurations. There is a wide distribution of multidimensional potential shapes for the proton stretching vibration with varying degrees of potential asymmetry and confinement. Finally, we find specific cross peak patterns due to aqueous Zundel-like species. These studies provide clarity on highly debated spectral assignments and stringent spectroscopic benchmarks for future simulations.

    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Exploiting nonlinear characteristics in micro/nanosystems has been a subject of increasing interest in the last decade. Among others, vigorous intermodal coupling through internal resonance (IR) has drawn much attention because it can suggest new strategies to steer energy within a micro/nanomechanical resonator. However, a challenge in utilizing IR in practical applications is imposing the required frequency commensurability between vibrational modes of a nonlinear micro/nanoresonator. Here, we experimentally and analytically investigate the 1:2 and 2:1 IR in a clamped–clamped beam resonator to provide insights into the detailed mechanism of IR. It is demonstrated that the intermodal coupling between the second and third flexural modes in an asymmetric structure (e.g., nonprismatic beam) provides an optimal condition to easily implement a strong IR with high energy transfer to the internally resonated mode. In this case, the quadratic coupling between these flexural modes, originating from the stretching effect, is the dominant nonlinear mechanism over other types of geometric nonlinearity. The design strategies proposed in this paper can be integrated into a typical micro/nanoelectromechanical system (M/NEMS) via a simple modification of the geometric parameters of resonators, and thus, we expect this study to stimulate further research and boost paradigm-shifting applications exploring the various benefits of IR in micro/nanosystems. 
    more » « less