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Title: Does ERA5 Mark a New Era for Resolving the Tropical Cyclone Environment?
Abstract

The synoptic environment around tropical cyclones plays a significant role in vortex evolution. To capture the environment, the operational and research communities calculate diagnostic quantities. To aid with applications and research, the Tropical Cyclone Precipitation, Infrared, Microwave, and Environmental Dataset (TC PRIMED) combines disparate data sources. A key part of TC PRIMED is the environmental context. Often, environmental diagnostics come from multiple sources. However, TC PRIMED uses the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts fifth-generation reanalysis (ERA5) product to provide a more complete representation of the storm environment from a single source. Reanalysis products usually poorly resolve tropical cyclones and their surrounding environment. To understand the uncertainty of large-scale diagnostics, ERA5 is compared to the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme developmental dataset and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gulfstream IV-SP dropwindsondes. This analysis highlights biases in the ERA5 environmental diagnostic quantities. Thermodynamic fields show the largest biases. The boundary layer exhibits a cold temperature bias that limits the amount of convective instability; also, the upper troposphere contains temperature biases and shows a high relative humidity bias. However, the upper-troposphere large-scale kinematic fields and derived metrics are low biased. In the lower troposphere, the temperature gradient and advection calculated from the thermal wind suggest that the low-level wind field is not representative of the observed distribution. These diagnostics comparisons provide uncertainty so that users of TC PRIMED can assess the implications for specific research and operational applications.

 
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NSF-PAR ID:
10406679
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
American Meteorological Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Climate
Volume:
35
Issue:
21
ISSN:
0894-8755
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 7147-7164
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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