Thin film evaporation is a widelyused thermal management solution for micro/nanodevices with high energy densities. Local measurements of the evaporation rate at a liquidvapor interface, however, are limited. We present a continuous profile of the evaporation heat transfer coefficient (
The Pearson correlation coefficient squared,
 NSFPAR ID:
 10407444
 Publisher / Repository:
 DOI PREFIX: 10.1523
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 The Journal of Neuroscience
 Volume:
 42
 Issue:
 50
 ISSN:
 02706474
 Page Range / eLocation ID:
 p. 93439355
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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Abstract ) in the submicron thin film region of a water meniscus obtained through local measurements interpreted by a machine learned surrogate of the physical system. Frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR), a noncontact laserbased method with micrometer lateral resolution, is used to induce and measure the meniscus evaporation. A neural network is then trained using finite element simulations to extract the$$h_{\text {evap}}$$ ${h}_{\text{evap}}$ profile from the FDTR data. For a substrate superheat of 20 K, the maximum$$h_{\text {evap}}$$ ${h}_{\text{evap}}$ is$$h_{\text {evap}}$$ ${h}_{\text{evap}}$ MW/$$1.0_{0.3}^{+0.5}$$ $1.{0}_{0.3}^{+0.5}$ K at a film thickness of$$\text {m}^2$$ ${\text{m}}^{2}$ nm. This ultrahigh$$15_{3}^{+29}$$ ${15}_{3}^{+29}$ value is two orders of magnitude larger than the heat transfer coefficient for singlephase forced convection or evaporation from a bulk liquid. Under the assumption of constant wall temperature, our profiles of$$h_{\text {evap}}$$ ${h}_{\text{evap}}$ and meniscus thickness suggest that 62% of the heat transfer comes from the region lying 0.1–1 μm from the meniscus edge, whereas just 29% comes from the next 100 μm.$$h_{\text {evap}}$$ ${h}_{\text{evap}}$ 
Abstract A search for supersymmetry involving the pair production of gluinos decaying via offshell thirdgeneration squarks into the lightest neutralino
is reported. It exploits LHC proton–proton collision data at a centreofmass energy$$(\tilde{\chi }^0_1)$$ $\left({\stackrel{~}{\chi}}_{1}^{0}\right)$ TeV with an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$$\sqrt{s} = 13$$ $\sqrt{s}=13$ collected with the ATLAS detector from 2015 to 2018. The search uses events containing large missing transverse momentum, up to one electron or muon, and several energetic jets, at least three of which must be identified as containing$$^{1}$$ ${}^{1}$b hadrons. Both a simple kinematic event selection and an event selection based upon a deep neuralnetwork are used. No significant excess above the predicted background is found. In simplified models involving the pair production of gluinos that decay via offshell top (bottom) squarks, gluino masses less than 2.44 TeV (2.35 TeV) are excluded at 95% CL for a massless Limits are also set on the gluino mass in models with variable branching ratios for gluino decays to$$\tilde{\chi }^0_1.$$ ${\stackrel{~}{\chi}}_{1}^{0}.$$$b\bar{b}\tilde{\chi }^0_1,$$ $b\overline{b}{\stackrel{~}{\chi}}_{1}^{0},$ and$$t\bar{t}\tilde{\chi }^0_1$$ $t\overline{t}{\stackrel{~}{\chi}}_{1}^{0}$$$t\bar{b}\tilde{\chi }^_1/\bar{t}b\tilde{\chi }^+_1.$$ $t\overline{b}{\stackrel{~}{\chi}}_{1}^{}/\overline{t}b{\stackrel{~}{\chi}}_{1}^{+}.$ 
We search for the rare decay${B}^{+}\to {K}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu}$in a$362\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{fb}}^{1}$sample of electronpositron collisions at the$\mathrm{\Upsilon}(4S)$resonance collected with the Belle II detector at the SuperKEKB collider. We use the inclusive properties of the accompanying$B$meson in$\mathrm{\Upsilon}(4S)\to B\overline{B}$events to suppress background from other decays of the signal$B$candidate and lightquark pair production. We validate the measurement with an auxiliary analysis based on a conventional hadronic reconstruction of the accompanying$B$meson. For background suppression, we exploit distinct signal features using machine learning methods tuned with simulated data. The signalreconstruction efficiency and background suppression are validated through various control channels. The branching fraction is extracted in a maximum likelihood fit. Our inclusive and hadronic analyses yield consistent results for the${B}^{+}\to {K}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu}$branching fraction of$[2.7\pm 0.5(\mathrm{stat})\pm 0.5(\mathrm{syst})]\times {10}^{5}$and$[{1.1}_{0.8}^{+0.9}(\mathrm{stat}{)}_{0.5}^{+0.8}(\mathrm{syst})]\times {10}^{5}$, respectively. Combining the results, we determine the branching fraction of the decay${B}^{+}\to {K}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu}$to be$[2.3\pm 0.5(\mathrm{stat}{)}_{0.4}^{+0.5}(\mathrm{syst})]\times {10}^{5}$, providing the first evidence for this decay at 3.5 standard deviations. The combined result is 2.7 standard deviations above the standard model expectation.
<supplementarymaterial><permissions><copyrightstatement>Published by the American Physical Society</copyrightstatement><copyrightyear>2024</copyrightyear></permissions></supplementarymaterial></sec> </div> <a href='#' class='show openabstract' style='marginleft:10px;'>more »</a> <a href='#' class='hide closeabstract' style='marginleft:10px;'>« less</a> </div><div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/TechArticle"> <div class="iteminfo"> <div class="title"> <a href="https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10495096randomquantumcircuitstransformlocalnoiseglobalwhitenoise" itemprop="url"> <span class='spanlink' itemprop="name">Random Quantum Circuits Transform Local Noise into Global White Noise</span> </a> </div> <div> <strong> <a class="misc externallink" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s0022002404958z" target="_blank" title="Link to document DOI">https://doi.org/10.1007/s0022002404958z <span class="fas faexternallinkalt"></span></a> </strong> </div> <div class="metadata"> <span class="authors"> <span class="author" itemprop="author">Dalzell, Alexander M.</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">HunterJones, Nicholas</span> <span class="sep">; </span><span class="author" itemprop="author">Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.</span> </span> <span class="year">( <time itemprop="datePublished" datetime="20240312">March 2024</time> , Communications in Mathematical Physics) </span> </div> <div style="cursor: pointer;webkitlineclamp: 5;" class="abstract" itemprop="description"> <title>Abstract We study the distribution over measurement outcomes of noisy random quantum circuits in the regime of low fidelity, which corresponds to the setting where the computation experiences at least one gatelevel error with probability close to one. We model noise by adding a pair of weak, unital, singlequbit noise channels after each twoqubit gate, and we show that for typical random circuit instances, correlations between the noisy output distribution
and the corresponding noiseless output distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$ ${p}_{\text{noisy}}$ shrink exponentially with the expected number of gatelevel errors. Specifically, the linear crossentropy benchmark$$p_{\text {ideal}}$$ ${p}_{\text{ideal}}$F that measures this correlation behaves as , where$$F=\text {exp}(2s\epsilon \pm O(s\epsilon ^2))$$ $F=\text{exp}(2s\u03f5\pm O\left(s{\u03f5}^{2}\right))$ is the probability of error per circuit location and$$\epsilon $$ $\u03f5$s is the number of twoqubit gates. Furthermore, if the noise is incoherent—for example, depolarizing or dephasing noise—the total variation distance between the noisy output distribution and the uniform distribution$$p_{\text {noisy}}$$ ${p}_{\text{noisy}}$ decays at precisely the same rate. Consequently, the noisy output distribution can be approximated as$$p_{\text {unif}}$$ ${p}_{\text{unif}}$ . In other words, although at least one local error occurs with probability$$p_{\text {noisy}}\approx Fp_{\text {ideal}}+ (1F)p_{\text {unif}}$$ ${p}_{\text{noisy}}\approx F{p}_{\text{ideal}}+(1F){p}_{\text{unif}}$ , the errors are scrambled by the random quantum circuit and can be treated as global white noise, contributing completely uniform output. Importantly, we upper bound the average total variation error in this approximation by$$1F$$ $1F$ . Thus, the “whitenoise approximation” is meaningful when$$O(F\epsilon \sqrt{s})$$ $O\left(F\u03f5\sqrt{s}\right)$ , a quadratically weaker condition than the$$\epsilon \sqrt{s} \ll 1$$ $\u03f5\sqrt{s}\ll 1$ requirement to maintain high fidelity. The bound applies if the circuit size satisfies$$\epsilon s\ll 1$$ $\u03f5s\ll 1$ , which corresponds to only$$s \ge \Omega (n\log (n))$$ $s\ge \Omega (nlog(n\left)\right)$logarithmic depth circuits, and if, additionally, the inverse error rate satisfies , which is needed to ensure errors are scrambled faster than$$\epsilon ^{1} \ge {\tilde{\Omega }}(n)$$ ${\u03f5}^{1}\ge \stackrel{~}{\Omega}\left(n\right)$F decays. The whitenoise approximation is useful for salvaging the signal from a noisy quantum computation; for example, it was an underlying assumption in complexitytheoretic arguments that noisy random quantum circuits cannot be efficiently sampled classically, even when the fidelity is low. Our method is based on a map from secondmoment quantities in random quantum circuits to expectation values of certain stochastic processes for which we compute upper and lower bounds. 
Abstract We prove an equivariant version of the Cosmetic Surgery Conjecture for strongly invertible knots. Our proof combines a recent result of Hanselman with the Khovanov multicurve invariants
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