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The continuing cases of COVID-19 due to emerging strains of the SARS-CoV-2 virus underscore the urgent need to develop effective antiviral technologies. A crucial aspect of reducing transmission of the virus is through environmental disinfection. To this end, a nanotechnology-based antimicrobial platform utilizing engineered water nanostructures (EWNS) was utilized to challenge the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a surrogate of SARS-CoV-2, on surfaces. The EWNS were synthesized using electrospray and ionization of aqueous solutions of antimicrobials, had a size in the nanoscale, and contained both antimicrobial agents and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Various EWNS were synthesized using single active ingredients (AI) as well as their combinations. The results of EWNS treatment indicate that EWNS produced with a cocktail of hydrogen peroxide, citric acid, lysozyme, nisin, and triethylene glycol was able to inactivate 3.8 logs of HCoV-229E, in 30 s of treatment. The delivered dose of antimicrobials to the surface was measured to be in pico to nanograms. These results indicate the efficacy of EWNS technology as a nano-carrier for delivering a minuscule dose while inactivating HCoV-229E, making this an attractive technology against SARS-CoV-2.more » « less
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was shown to affect cells not only directly, but also indirectly by means of plasma pre‐treated solution. This study investigated a new application of CAP generated in deionized (DI) water for the cancer therapy. In our experiments, the CAP solution was generated in DI water using helium as carrier gas. We report on the effects of this plasma solution in breast (MDA‐MD‐231) and gastric (NCI‐N87) cancer cells. The results revealed that apoptosis efficiency was dependent on the plasma exposure time and on the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). The plasma solution that resulted from 30‐min treatment of DI water had the most significant effect in the rate of apoptosis.
Pathogenesis of COVID-19 by SARS-CoV-2 resulted in a global pandemic and public health emergency in 2020. Viral infection can induce oxidative stress through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inflammation and environmental stress are major sources of oxidative stress after infection. Micronutrients such as iron, copper, zinc, and manganese play various roles in human tissues and their imbalance in blood can impact immune responses against pathogens including SARS CoV-2. We hypothesized that alteration of free metal ions during infection and metal-catalyzed oxidation plays a critical role towards pathogenesis after infection. We analyzed convalescent and hospitalized COVID-19 patient plasma using orthogonal analytical techniques to determine redox active metal concentrations, overall protein oxidation, oxidative modifications, and protein levels via proteomics to understand the consequences of metal-induced oxidative stress in COVID-19 plasma proteins. Metal analysis using ICP-MS showed significantly greater concentrations of copper in COVID-19 plasma compared to healthy controls. We demonstrate significantly greater total protein carbonylation, other oxidative modifications, and deamidation of plasma proteins in COVID-19 plasma compared to healthy controls. Proteomics analysis showed that levels of redox active proteins including hemoglobulin were elevated in COVID-19 plasma. Molecular modeling concurred with potential interactions between iron binding proteins and SARS CoV-2 surface proteins. Overall, increased levels of redox active metals and protein oxidation indicate that oxidative stress-induced protein oxidation in COVID-19 may be a consequence of the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins with host cell metal binding proteins resulting in altered cellular homeostasis.
Microbial biofilms are of critical concern because of their recalcitrance to antimicrobials. Cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) represent a promising biofilm remediation strategy as they generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but mechanisms underpinning CAP‐biofilm interactions remain unknown. We assess the impact of treatment modality on biofilm inactivation and show that CAP killing of
Staphylococcus aureusbiofilms is dependent on treatment conditions, including solution chemistry. In dry treatments, biofilms are locally ablated due to plasma‐produced O flux. For saline‐submerged biofilms, while we show that ClO−is generated at high concentrations in larger treatment volumes, CAP inactivation at low ClO−concentrations implicates other reaction pathways. Finally, we demonstrate CAP efficacy over conventional antimicrobials, underscoring its promise as a biofilm treatment approach.
The glycosylation on the spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, modulates the viral infection by altering conformational dynamics, receptor interaction and host immune responses. Several variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2 have evolved during the pandemic, and crucial mutations on the S protein of the virus have led to increased transmissibility and immune escape. In this study, we compare the site-specific glycosylation and overall glycomic profiles of the wild type Wuhan-Hu-1 strain (WT) S protein and five VOCs of SARS-CoV-2: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. Interestingly, both N- and O-glycosylation sites on the S protein are highly conserved among the spike mutant variants, particularly at the sites on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). The conservation of glycosylation sites is noteworthy, as over 2 million SARS-CoV-2 S protein sequences have been reported with various amino acid mutations. Our detailed profiling of the glycosylation at each of the individual sites of the S protein across the variants revealed intriguing possible association of glycosylation pattern on the variants and their previously reported infectivity. While the sites are conserved, we observed changes in the N- and O-glycosylation profile across the variants. The newly emerged variants, which showed higher resistance to neutralizing antibodies and vaccines, displayed a decrease in the overall abundance of complex-type glycans with both fucosylation and sialylation and an increase in the oligomannose-type glycans across the sites. Among the variants, the glycosylation sites with significant changes in glycan profile were observed at both the
N-terminal domain and RBD of S protein, with Omicron showing the highest deviation. The increase in oligomannose-type happens sequentially from Alpha through Delta. Interestingly, Omicron does not contain more oligomannose-type glycans compared to Delta but does contain more compared to the WT and other VOCs. O-glycosylation at the RBD showed lower occupancy in the VOCs in comparison to the WT. Our study on the sites and pattern of glycosylation on the SARS-CoV-2 S proteins across the VOCs may help to understand how the virus evolved to trick the host immune system. Our study also highlights how the SARS-CoV-2 virus has conserved both N- and O- glycosylation sites on the S protein of the most successful variants even after undergoing extensive mutations, suggesting a correlation between infectivity/ transmissibility and glycosylation.