This content will become publicly available on April 17, 2024
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- Frontiers for Young Minds
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- National Science Foundation
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Localization of the Swainsonine-Producing Chaetothyriales Symbiont in the Seed and Shoot Apical Meristem in Its Host Ipomoea carneaSeveral species of fungi from the orders Chaetothyriales and Pleosporales have been reported to produce swainsonine and be associated as symbionts with plants of the Convolvulaceae and Fabaceae, respectively. An endosymbiont belonging to the Chaetothyriales produces swainsonine and grows as an epibiont on the adaxial leaf surfaces of Ipomoea carnea, but how the symbiont passes through plant growth and development is unknown. Herein, different types of microscopy were used to localize the symbiont in seeds and in cross sections of plant parts. The symbiont was found in several tissues including the hilum, the sclereids, and the hypocotyl of seeds. In five-day old seedlings and mature plants, the symbiont was found in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the adaxial surface of immature folded leaves. The mycelia generally formed a close association with peltate glandular trichomes. This report provides further data explaining the relationship between the seed transmitted Chaetothyriales symbiont and Ipomoea carnea. These results provide a possible explanation for how this symbiont, and others like Periglandula may persist and are transmitted over time.
Land plants develop highly diversified shoot architectures, all of which are derived from the pluripotent stem cells in shoot apical meristems (SAMs). As sustainable resources for continuous organ formation in the aboveground tissues, SAMs play an important role in determining plant yield and biomass production. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding one group of key regulators – the HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) family GRAS domain proteins – in shoot meristems. We highlight the functions of HAM family members in dictating shoot stem cell initiation and proliferation, the signaling cascade that shapes HAM expression domains in shoot meristems, and the conservation and diversification of HAM family members in land plants. We also discuss future directions that potentially lead to a more comprehensive view of the HAM gene family and stem cell homeostasis in land plants.
The hormones auxin and cytokinin are essential for plant growth and development. Because of the central importance of root and shoot apical meristems in plant growth, auxin/cytokinin interactions have been predominantly analyzed in relation to apical meristem formation and function. In contrast, the auxin/cytokinin interactions during organ growth have remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that a specific interaction between auxin and cytokinin operates in both the root and the shoot where it serves as an additional determinant of plant development. We found that auxin at low concentrations limits the action of cytokinin. An increase in cytokinin level counteracts this inhibitory effect and leads to an inhibition of auxin signaling. At higher concentrations of both hormones, these antagonistic interactions between cytokinin and auxin are absent. Thus, our results reveal a bidirectional and asymmetrical interaction of auxin and cytokinin beyond the bounds of apical meristems. The relation is bidirectional in that both hormones exert inhibitory effects on each other's signaling mechanisms. However, this relation is also asymmetrical because under controlled growth conditions, auxin present in nontreated plants suppresses cytokinin signaling, whereas the reverse is not the case.
The shoot apical meristems (SAMs) of land plants are crucial for plant growth and organ formation. In several angiosperms, the
HAIRY MERISTEM( HAM) genes function as key regulators that control meristem development and stem cell homeostasis. To date, the origin and evolutionary history of the HAM family in land plants remains unclear. Potentially shared and divergent functions of HAM family members from angiosperms and non‐angiosperms are also not known. In constructing a comprehensive phylogeny of the HAM family, we show that HAM proteins are widely present in land plants and that HAM proteins originated prior to the divergence of bryophytes. The HAM family was duplicated in a common ancestor of angiosperms, leading to two distinct groups: type I and type II. Type‐II HAM members are widely present in angiosperms, whereas type‐I HAM members were independently lost in different orders of monocots. Furthermore, HAM members from angiosperms and non‐angiosperms (including bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns and gymnosperms) are able to replace the role of the type‐II HAMgenes in Arabidopsis, maintaining established SAMs and promoting the initiation of new stem cell niches. Our results uncover the conserved functions of HAM family members and reveal the conserved regulatory mechanisms underlying HAM expression patterning in meristems, providing insight into themore »
Initiation of aboveground organ primordia depends on combined action of auxin, ERECTA family genes, and PINOID
Leaves and flowers are produced by the shoot apical meristem (SAM) at a certain distance from its center, a process that requires the hormone auxin. The amount of auxin and the pattern of its distribution in the initiation zone determine the size and spatial arrangement of organ primordia. Auxin gradients in the SAM are formed by PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers whose polar localization in the plasma membrane depends on the protein kinase PINOID (PID). Previous work determined that ERECTA (ER) family genes (ERfs) control initiation of leaves. ERfs are plasma membrane receptors that enable cell-to-cell communication by sensing extracellular small proteins from the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR/EPF-LIKE (EPF/EPFL) family. Here, we investigated whether ERfs regulate initiation of organs by altering auxin distribution or signaling in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic and pharmacological data suggested that ERfs do not regulate organogenesis through PINs while transcriptomics data showed that ERfs do not alter primary transcriptional responses to auxin. Our results indicated that in the absence of ERf signaling the peripheral zone cells inefficiently initiate leaves in response to auxin signals and that increased accumulation of auxin in the er erecta-like1 (erl1) erl2 SAM can partially rescue organ initiation defects. We propose thatmore »