Under broken time reversal symmetry such as in the presence of external magnetic field or internal magnetization, a transverse voltage can be established in materials perpendicular to both longitudinal current and applied magnetic field, known as classical Hall effect. However, this symmetry constraint can be relaxed in the nonlinear regime, thereby enabling nonlinear anomalous Hall current in time-reversal invariant materials – an underexplored realm with exciting new opportunities beyond classical linear Hall effect. Here, using group theory and first-principles theory, we demonstrate a remarkable ferroelectric nonlinear anomalous Hall effect in time-reversal invariant few-layer WTe2where nonlinear anomalous Hall current switches in odd-layer WTe2except 1T′ monolayer while remaining invariant in even-layer WTe2upon ferroelectric transition. This even-odd oscillation of ferroelectric nonlinear anomalous Hall effect was found to originate from the absence and presence of Berry curvature dipole reversal and shift dipole reversal due to distinct ferroelectric transformation in even and odd-layer WTe2. Our work not only treats Berry curvature dipole and shift dipole on an equal footing to account for intraband and interband contributions to nonlinear anomalous Hall effect, but also establishes Berry curvature dipole and shift dipole as new order parameters for noncentrosymmetric materials. The present findings suggest that ferroelectric metals and Weyl semimetals may offer unprecedented opportunities for the development of nonlinear quantum electronics.
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- APL Materials
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Integration of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a magnetically ordered material provides an additional degree of freedom through which the resulting exotic quantum states can be controlled. Here, an experimental observation is reported of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a magnetically‐doped topological insulator grown on the antiferromagnetic insulator Cr2O3. The exchange coupling between the two materials is investigated using field‐cooling‐dependent magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectometry. Both techniques reveal strong interfacial interaction between the antiferromagnetic order of the Cr2O3and the magnetic topological insulator, manifested as an exchange bias when the sample is field‐cooled under an out‐of‐plane magnetic field, and an exchange spring‐like magnetic depth profile when the system is magnetized within the film plane. These results identify antiferromagnetic insulators as suitable candidates for the manipulation of magnetic and topological order in topological insulator films.
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is characterized by a dissipationless chiral edge state with a quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field. Manipulating the QAH state is of great importance in both the understanding of topological quantum physics and the implementation of dissipationless electronics. Here, the QAH effect is realized in the magnetic topological insulator Cr‐doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3(CBST) grown on an uncompensated antiferromagnetic insulator Al‐doped Cr2O3. Through polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR), a strong exchange coupling is found between CBST and Al‐Cr2O3surface spins fixing interfacial magnetic moments perpendicular to the film plane. The interfacial coupling results in an exchange‐biased QAH effect. This study further demonstrates that the magnitude and sign of the exchange bias can be effectively controlled using a field training process to set the magnetization of the Al‐Cr2O3layer. It demonstrates the use of the exchange bias effect to effectively manipulate the QAH state, opening new possibilities in QAH‐based spintronics.
Electrons in moiré flat band systems can spontaneously break time-reversal symmetry, giving rise to a quantized anomalous Hall effect. In this study, we use a superconducting quantum interference device to image stray magnetic fields in twisted bilayer graphene aligned to hexagonal boron nitride. We find a magnetization of several Bohr magnetons per charge carrier, demonstrating that the magnetism is primarily orbital in nature. Our measurements reveal a large change in the magnetization as the chemical potential is swept across the quantum anomalous Hall gap, consistent with the expected contribution of chiral edge states to the magnetization of an orbital Chern insulator. Mapping the spatial evolution of field-driven magnetic reversal, we find a series of reproducible micrometer-scale domains pinned to structural disorder.
Nontrivial topology in condensed-matter systems enriches quantum states of matter to go beyond either the classification into metals and insulators in terms of conventional band theory or that of symmetry-broken phases by Landau’s order parameter framework. So far, focus has been on weakly interacting systems, and little is known about the limit of strong electron correlations. Heavy fermion systems are a highly versatile platform to explore this regime. Here we report the discovery of a giant spontaneous Hall effect in the Kondo semimetal C e 3 B i 4 P d 3 that is noncentrosymmetric but preserves time-reversal symmetry. We attribute this finding to Weyl nodes—singularities of the Berry curvature—that emerge in the immediate vicinity of the Fermi level due to the Kondo interaction. We stress that this phenomenon is distinct from the previously detected anomalous Hall effect in materials with broken time-reversal symmetry; instead, it manifests an extreme topological response that requires a beyond-perturbation-theory description of the previously proposed nonlinear Hall effect. The large magnitude of the effect in even tiny electric and zero magnetic fields as well as its robust bulk nature may aid the exploitation in topological quantum devices.more » « less