skip to main content


Title: Single-walled zeolitic nanotubes
We report the synthesis and structure of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes with microporous zeolitic walls. This quasi-one-dimensional zeolite is assembled by a bolaform structure-directing agent (SDA) containing a central biphenyl group connected by C 10 alkyl chains to quinuclidinium end groups. High-resolution electron microscopy and diffraction, along with other supporting methods, revealed a unique wall structure that is a hybrid of characteristic building layers from two zeolite structure types, beta and MFI. This hybrid structure arises from minimization of strain energy during the formation of a curved nanotube wall. Nanotube formation involves the early appearance of a mesostructure due to self-assembly of the SDA molecules. The biphenyl core groups of the SDA molecules show evidence of π stacking, whereas the peripheral quinuclidinium groups direct the microporous wall structure.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1420620
NSF-PAR ID:
10415964
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Science
Volume:
375
Issue:
6576
ISSN:
0036-8075
Page Range / eLocation ID:
62 to 66
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Zeolites are generally defined as three-dimensional (3D) crystalline microporous aluminosilicates in which silicon (Si4+) and aluminum (Al3+) are coordinated tetrahedrally with oxygen to form large negative lattices and consequent Brønsted acidity. Two-dimensional (2D) zeolite nanosheets with single-unit-cell or near single-unit-cell thickness (~2–3 nm) represent an emerging type of zeolite material. The extremely thin slices of crystals in 2D zeolites produce high external surface areas (up to 50% of total surface area compared to ~2% in micron-sized 3D zeolite) and expose most of their active sites on external surfaces, enabling beneficial effects for the adsorption and reaction performance for processing bulky molecules. This review summarizes the structural properties of 2D layered precursors and 2D zeolite derivatives, as well as the acidity properties of 2D zeolite derivative structures, especially in connection to their 3D conventional zeolite analogues’ structural and compositional properties. The timeline of the synthesis and recognition of 2D zeolites, as well as the structure and composition properties of each 2D zeolite, are discussed initially. The qualitative and quantitative measurements on the acid site type, strength, and accessibility of 2D zeolites are then presented. Future research and development directions to advance understanding of 2D zeolite materials are also discussed. 
    more » « less
  2. The synthesis of hierarchical lamellar zeolites with a controlled meso-/microporous morphology and acidity is an expanding area of research interest for a wide range of applications. Here, we report a one-step synthesis of a hierarchical meso-/microporous lamellar MFI–Sn/Al zeolite ( i.e. , containing both Lewis acidic Sn- and Al-sites and a Brønsted acidic Al–O(H)–Si site) and its catalytic application for the conversion of glucose into 5-(ethoxymethyl)furfural (EMF). The MFI–Sn/Al zeolite was prepared with the assistance of a diquaternary ammonium ([C 22 H 45 –N + (CH 3 ) 2 –C 6 H 12 –N + (CH 3 ) 2 –C 6 H 13 ]Br 2− , C 22-6-6 ) template in a composition of 100SiO 2 /5C 22-6-6 /18.5Na 2 O/ x Al 2 O 3 / y SnO 2 /2957H 2 O ( x = 0.5, 1, and 2; y = 1 and 2, respectively). The MFI–Sn/Al zeolites innovatively feature dual meso-/microporosity and dual Lewis and Brønsted acidity, which enabled a three-step reaction cascade for EMF synthesis from glucose in ethanol solvent. The reaction proceeded via the isomerization of glucose to fructose over Lewis acidic Sn sites and the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and then the etherification of HMF and ethanol to EMF over the Brønsted acidic Al–O(H)–Si sites. The co-existence of multiple acidities in a single zeolite catalyst enabled one-pot cascade reactions for carbohydrate upgrading. The dual meso-/microporosity in the MFI–Sn/Al zeolites facilitated mass transport in processing of bulky biomass molecules. The balance of both types of acidity and meso-/microporosity realized an EMF yield as high as 44% from the glucose reactant. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Synthesis of a pentasil‐type zeolite with ultra‐small few‐unit‐cell crystalline domains, which we call FDP (few‐unit‐cell crystalline domain pentasil), is reported. FDP is made using bis‐1,5(tributyl ammonium) pentamethylene cations as structure directing agent (SDA). This di‐quaternary ammonium SDA combines butyl ammonium, in place of the one commonly used for MFI synthesis, propyl ammonium, and a five‐carbon nitrogen‐connecting chain, in place of the six‐carbon connecting chain SDAs that are known to fit well within the MFI pores. X‐ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy imaging of FDP indicate ca. 10 nm crystalline domains organized in hierarchical micro‐/meso‐porous aggregates exhibiting mesoscopic order with an aggregate particle size up to ca. 5 μm. Al and Sn can be incorporated into the FDP zeolite framework to produce active and selective methanol‐to‐hydrocarbon and glucose isomerization catalysts, respectively.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Synthesis of a pentasil‐type zeolite with ultra‐small few‐unit‐cell crystalline domains, which we call FDP (few‐unit‐cell crystalline domain pentasil), is reported. FDP is made using bis‐1,5(tributyl ammonium) pentamethylene cations as structure directing agent (SDA). This di‐quaternary ammonium SDA combines butyl ammonium, in place of the one commonly used for MFI synthesis, propyl ammonium, and a five‐carbon nitrogen‐connecting chain, in place of the six‐carbon connecting chain SDAs that are known to fit well within the MFI pores. X‐ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy imaging of FDP indicate ca. 10 nm crystalline domains organized in hierarchical micro‐/meso‐porous aggregates exhibiting mesoscopic order with an aggregate particle size up to ca. 5 μm. Al and Sn can be incorporated into the FDP zeolite framework to produce active and selective methanol‐to‐hydrocarbon and glucose isomerization catalysts, respectively.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Block polymer structure-directing agents (SDA) enable the production of porous nanoscale materials. Most strategies rely upon polymer equilibration where diverse morphologies are realized in porous functional materials. This review details how solvent selectivity determines the polymer SDA behaviors, spanning from bulk-type to solution-type. Equilibrating behavior of either type, however, obscures nanostructure cause-and-effect since the resulting sample series convolve multiple spatial variations. Solution-type SDA behaviors include both dynamic and persistent micelles. Persistent micelle templates (PMT) use high solvent selectivity for kinetic entrapment. PMTs enable independent wall thickness control with demonstrated 2 Å precision alterations. Unimodal PMT pore size distributions have spanned from 11.8 to 109 nm and multimodal pore sizes up to 290 nm. The PMT method is simple to validate with diffraction models and is feasible in any laboratory. Finally, recent energy device publications enabled by PMT are reviewed where tailored nanomaterials provide a unique perspective to unambiguously identify nanostructure–property–performance relationships.

    Graphical abstract

     
    more » « less