skip to main content

Title: A median fin derived from the lateral plate mesoderm and the origin of paired fins
Abstract The development of paired appendages was a key innovation during evolution and facilitated the aquatic to terrestrial transition of vertebrates. Largely derived from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), one hypothesis for the evolution of paired fins invokes derivation from unpaired median fins via a pair of lateral fin folds located between pectoral and pelvic fin territories 1 . Whilst unpaired and paired fins exhibit similar structural and molecular characteristics, no definitive evidence exists for paired lateral fin folds in larvae or adults of any extant or extinct species. As unpaired fin core components are regarded as exclusively derived from paraxial mesoderm, any transition presumes both co-option of a fin developmental programme to the LPM and bilateral duplication 2 . Here, we identify that the larval zebrafish unpaired pre-anal fin fold (PAFF) is derived from the LPM and thus may represent a developmental intermediate between median and paired fins. We trace the contribution of LPM to the PAFF in both cyclostomes and gnathostomes, supporting the notion that this is an ancient trait of vertebrates. Finally, we observe that the PAFF can be bifurcated by increasing bone morphogenetic protein signalling, generating LPM-derived paired fin folds. Our work provides evidence that lateral fin folds may have existed as embryonic anlage for elaboration to paired fins.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1853949 2203311
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; « less
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The dorsal, anal and caudal fins of vertebrates are proposed to have originated by the partitioning and transformation of the continuous median fin fold that is plesiomorphic to chordates. Evaluating this hypothesis has been challenging, because it is unclear how the median fin fold relates to the adult median fins of vertebrates. To understand how new median fins originate, here we study the development and diversity of adipose fins. Phylogenetic mapping shows that in all lineages except Characoidei (Characiformes) adipose fins develop from a domain of the larval median fin fold. To inform how the larva’s median fin fold contributes to the adipose fin, we studyCorydoras aeneus(Siluriformes). As the fin fold reduces around the prospective site of the adipose fin, a fin spine develops in the fold, growing both proximally and distally, and sensory innervation, which appears to originate from the recurrent ramus of the facial nerve and from dorsal rami of the spinal cord, develops in the adipose fin membrane. Collectively, these data show how a plesiomorphic median fin fold can serve as scaffolding for the evolution and development of novel, individuated median fins, consistent with the median fin fold hypothesis.

    more » « less
  2. The origin and diversification of appendage types is a central question in vertebrate evolution. Understanding the genetic mechanisms that underlie fin and limb development can reveal relationships between different appendages. Here we demonstrate, using chemical genetics, a mutually agonistic interaction between Fgf and Shh genes in the developing dorsal fin of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus . We also find that Fgf8 and Shh orthologs are expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity, respectively, in the median fins of representatives from other major vertebrate lineages. These findings demonstrate the importance of this feedback loop in median fins and offer developmental evidence for a median fin-first scenario for vertebrate paired appendage origins. 
    more » « less
  3. The skeletal system derives from multiple embryonic sources whose derivatives must develop in coordination to produce an integrated whole. In particular, interactions across the lateral somitic frontier, where derivatives of the somites and lateral plate mesoderm come into contact, are important for proper development. Many questions remain about genetic control of this coordination, and embryological information is incomplete for some structures that incorporate the frontier, including the sternum. Hox genes act in both tissues as regulators of skeletal pattern. Here, we used conditional deletion to characterize the tissue-specific contributions of Hoxa5 to skeletal patterning. We found that most aspects of the Hoxa5 skeletal phenotype are attributable to its activity in one or the other tissue, indicating largely additive roles. However, multiple roles are identified at the junction of the T1 ribs and the anterior portion of the sternum, or presternum. The embryology of the presternum has not been well described in mouse. We present a model for presternum development, and show that it arises from multiple, paired LPM-derived primordia. We show evidence that HOXA5 expression marks the embryonic precursor of a recently identified lateral presternum structure that is variably present in therians. 
    more » « less
  4. ABSTRACT Syndromic birth defects are rare diseases that can present with seemingly pleiotropic comorbidities. Prime examples are rare congenital heart and cardiovascular anomalies that can be accompanied by forelimb defects, kidney disorders and more. Whether such multi-organ defects share a developmental link remains a key question with relevance to the diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and long-term care of affected patients. The heart, endothelial and blood lineages develop together from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), which also harbors the progenitor cells for limb connective tissue, kidneys, mesothelia and smooth muscle. This developmental plasticity of the LPM, which founds on multi-lineage progenitor cells and shared transcription factor expression across different descendant lineages, has the potential to explain the seemingly disparate syndromic defects in rare congenital diseases. Combining patient genome-sequencing data with model organism studies has already provided a wealth of insights into complex LPM-associated birth defects, such as heart-hand syndromes. Here, we summarize developmental and known disease-causing mechanisms in early LPM patterning, address how defects in these processes drive multi-organ comorbidities, and outline how several cardiovascular and hematopoietic birth defects with complex comorbidities may be LPM-associated diseases. We also discuss strategies to integrate patient sequencing, data-aggregating resources and model organism studies to mechanistically decode congenital defects, including potentially LPM-associated orphan diseases. Eventually, linking complex congenital phenotypes to a common LPM origin provides a framework to discover developmental mechanisms and to anticipate comorbidities in congenital diseases affecting the cardiovascular system and beyond. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Background: Skeletal muscle in the trunk derives from the somites, paired segments of paraxial mesoderm. Whereas axial musculature develops within the somite, appendicular muscle develops following migration of muscle precursors into lateral plate mesoderm. The development of muscles bridging axial and appendicular systems appears mixed. Results: We examine development of three migratory muscle precursor-derived muscles in zebrafish: the sternohyoideus (SH), pectoral fin (PF), and posterior hypaxial (PHM) muscles. We show there is an anterior to posterior gradient to the developmental gene expression and maturation of these three muscles. SH muscle precursors exhibit a long delay between migration and differentiation, PF muscle precursors exhibit a moderate delay in differentiation, and PHM muscle precursors show virtually no delay between migration and differentiation. Using lineage tracing, we show that lateral plate contribution to the PHM muscle is minor, unlike its known extensive contribution to the PF muscle and absence in the ventral extension of axial musculature. Conclusions: We propose that PHM development is intermediate between a migratory muscle mode and an axial muscle mode of development, wherein the PHM differentiates after a very short migration of its precursors and becomes more anterior primarily by elongation of differentiated muscle fibers. 
    more » « less