skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Real-time GW -BSE investigations on spin-valley exciton dynamics in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide
We develop an ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) method based on GW plus real-time Bethe-Salpeter equation ( GW + rtBSE-NAMD) for the spin-resolved exciton dynamics. From investigations on MoS 2 , we provide a comprehensive picture of spin-valley exciton dynamics where the electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering, spin-orbit interaction (SOI), and electron-hole (e-h) interactions come into play collectively. In particular, we provide a direct evidence that e-h exchange interaction plays a dominant role in the fast valley depolarization within a few picoseconds, which is in excellent agreement with experiments. Moreover, there are bright-to-dark exciton transitions induced by e-ph scattering and SOI. Our study proves that e-h many-body effects are essential to understand the spin-valley exciton dynamics in transition metal dichalcogenides and the newly developed GW + rtBSE-NAMD method provides a powerful tool for exciton dynamics in extended systems with time, space, momentum, energy, and spin resolution.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1809085
NSF-PAR ID:
10417860
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Volume:
7
Issue:
10
ISSN:
2375-2548
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling exciton band structure and exciton dynamics are central to diverse chemical and materials problems. Here, we have developed a first-principles method to determine exciton dispersion and exciton–phonon interaction in semiconducting and insulating solids based on time-dependent density functional theory. The first-principles method is formulated in planewave bases and pseudopotentials and can be used to compute exciton band structures, exciton charge density, ionic forces, the non-adiabatic coupling matrix between excitonic states, and the exciton–phonon coupling matrix. Based on the spinor formulation, the method enables self-consistent noncollinear calculations to capture spin-orbital coupling. Hybrid exchange-correlation functionals are incorporated to deal with long-range electron–hole interactions in solids. A sub-Hilbert space approximation is introduced to reduce the computational cost without loss of accuracy. For validations, we have applied the method to compute the exciton band structure and exciton–phonon coupling strength in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers; both agree very well with the previous GW-Bethe–Salpeter equation and experimental results. This development paves the way for accurate determinations of exciton dynamics in a wide range of solid-state materials.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract We investigate the spin-nonconserving relaxation channel of excitons by their couplings with phonons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides using ab initio approaches. Combining GW-Bethe–Salpeter equation method and density functional perturbation theory, we calculate the electron–phonon and exciton–phonon coupling matrix elements for the spin-flip scattering in monolayer WSe 2 , and further analyze the microscopic mechanisms influencing these scattering strengths. We find that phonons could produce effective in-plane magnetic fields which flip spin of excitons, giving rise to relaxation channels complimentary to the spin-conserving relaxation. Finally, we calculate temperature-dependent spin-flip exciton–phonon relaxation times. Our method and analysis can be generalized to study other two-dimensional materials and would stimulate experimental measurements of spin-flip exciton relaxation dynamics. 
    more » « less
  3. We provide a didactic introduction to 2nd‐quantized representation of complex electron–hole (e/h) excitation patterns in general configuration interaction wave functions built from orthonormal local orbitals of natural atomic orbital or natural bond orbital (NBO) type. Such local excitation patterns of chemically oriented basis functions can be related to the resonance concepts of valence bond theory, and quantitative evaluation of the associated excitation probabilities then provides an alternative assessment of resonance “weighting” that may be compared with those of NBO‐based natural resonance theory. We illustrate the usefulness of anticommutation relations in deriving Pauli‐compliant expressions for allowed excitation patterns, showing how the exciton‐like promotions φλ → φν(creating ane/hexcitation withhin φλandein φν) impose strict constraints on associatede/h‐probabilities (requiring, e.g., that thee‐probability for an electron “to be” or “not to be” in φνmust be rigorously linked to the complementaryh‐probabilities in φλ). Specific examples are presented of the quantum Boolean logic for four or six local spin‐orbitals, with emphasis on Natural Poly‐Electron Population Analysis (NPEPA) evaluation of VB‐type covalent and ionic contributions in conventional 2‐center bonding, resonance weightings in 3‐center hydrogen bonding, and general characteristics of higher‐orderm‐center bonding motifs form > 3. Numerical results are presented for methylamine, acrolein, and water dimer to illustrate current NPEPA implementation in the NBO program. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

     
    more » « less
  4. The protected electron states at the boundaries or on the surfaces of topological insulators (TIs) have been the subject of intense theoretical and experimental investigations. Such states are enforced by very strong spin–orbit interaction in solids composed of heavy elements. Here, we study the composite particles—chiral excitons—formed by the Coulomb attraction between electrons and holes residing on the surface of an archetypical 3D TI,Bi2Se3. Photoluminescence (PL) emission arising due to recombination of excitons in conventional semiconductors is usually unpolarized because of scattering by phonons and other degrees of freedom during exciton thermalization. On the contrary, we observe almost perfectly polarization-preserving PL emission from chiral excitons. We demonstrate that the chiral excitons can be optically oriented with circularly polarized light in a broad range of excitation energies, even when the latter deviate from the (apparent) optical band gap by hundreds of millielectronvolts, and that the orientation remains preserved even at room temperature. Based on the dependences of the PL spectra on the energy and polarization of incident photons, we propose that chiral excitons are made from massive holes and massless (Dirac) electrons, both with chiral spin textures enforced by strong spin–orbit coupling. A theoretical model based on this proposal describes quantitatively the experimental observations. The optical orientation of composite particles, the chiral excitons, emerges as a general result of strong spin–orbit coupling in a 2D electron system. Our findings can potentially expand applications of TIs in photonics and optoelectronics.

     
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The Electron Loss and Fields Investigation with a Spatio-Temporal Ambiguity-Resolving option (ELFIN-STAR, or heretoforth simply: ELFIN) mission comprises two identical 3-Unit (3U) CubeSats on a polar (∼93 ∘ inclination), nearly circular, low-Earth (∼450 km altitude) orbit. Launched on September 15, 2018, ELFIN is expected to have a >2.5 year lifetime. Its primary science objective is to resolve the mechanism of storm-time relativistic electron precipitation, for which electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are a prime candidate. From its ionospheric vantage point, ELFIN uses its unique pitch-angle-resolving capability to determine whether measured relativistic electron pitch-angle and energy spectra within the loss cone bear the characteristic signatures of scattering by EMIC waves or whether such scattering may be due to other processes. Pairing identical ELFIN satellites with slowly-variable along-track separation allows disambiguation of spatial and temporal evolution of the precipitation over minutes-to-tens-of-minutes timescales, faster than the orbit period of a single low-altitude satellite (T orbit ∼ 90 min). Each satellite carries an energetic particle detector for electrons (EPDE) that measures 50 keV to 5 MeV electrons with $\Delta $ Δ E/E < 40% and a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) on a ∼72 cm boom that measures magnetic field waves (e.g., EMIC waves) in the range from DC to 5 Hz Nyquist (nominally) with <0.3 nT/sqrt(Hz) noise at 1 Hz. The spinning satellites (T spin $\,\sim $ ∼ 3 s) are equipped with magnetorquers (air coils) that permit spin-up or -down and reorientation maneuvers. Using those, the spin axis is placed normal to the orbit plane (nominally), allowing full pitch-angle resolution twice per spin. An energetic particle detector for ions (EPDI) measures 250 keV – 5 MeV ions, addressing secondary science. Funded initially by CalSpace and the University Nanosat Program, ELFIN was selected for flight with joint support from NSF and NASA between 2014 and 2018 and launched by the ELaNa XVIII program on a Delta II rocket (with IceSatII as the primary). Mission operations are currently funded by NASA. Working under experienced UCLA mentors, with advice from The Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel, more than 250 undergraduates have matured the ELFIN implementation strategy; developed the instruments, satellite, and ground systems and operate the two satellites. ELFIN’s already high potential for cutting-edge science return is compounded by concurrent equatorial Heliophysics missions (THEMIS, Arase, Van Allen Probes, MMS) and ground stations. ELFIN’s integrated data analysis approach, rapid dissemination strategies via the SPace Environment Data Analysis System (SPEDAS), and data coordination with the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory (H/GSO) optimize science yield, enabling the widest community benefits. Several storm-time events have already been captured and are presented herein to demonstrate ELFIN’s data analysis methods and potential. These form the basis of on-going studies to resolve the primary mission science objective. Broad energy precipitation events, precipitation bands, and microbursts, clearly seen both at dawn and dusk, extend from tens of keV to >1 MeV. This broad energy range of precipitation indicates that multiple waves are providing scattering concurrently. Many observed events show significant backscattered fluxes, which in the past were hard to resolve by equatorial spacecraft or non-pitch-angle-resolving ionospheric missions. These observations suggest that the ionosphere plays a significant role in modifying magnetospheric electron fluxes and wave-particle interactions. Routine data captures starting in February 2020 and lasting for at least another year, approximately the remainder of the mission lifetime, are expected to provide a very rich dataset to address questions even beyond the primary mission science objective. 
    more » « less