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Title: Yeast of Eden: microbial resistance to glyphosate from a yeast perspective

First marketed as RoundUp, glyphosate is history’s most popular herbicide because of its low acute toxicity to metazoans and broad-spectrum effectiveness across plant species. The development of glyphosate-resistant crops has led to increased glyphosate use and consequences from the use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH). Glyphosate has entered the food supply, spurred glyphosate-resistant weeds, and exposed non-target organisms to glyphosate. Glyphosate targets EPSPS/AroA/Aro1 (orthologs across plants, bacteria, and fungi), the rate-limiting step in the production of aromatic amino acids from the shikimate pathway. Metazoans lacking this pathway are spared from acute toxicity and acquire their aromatic amino acids from their diet. However, glyphosate resistance is increasing in non-target organisms. Mutations and natural genetic variation discovered inSaccharomyces cerevisiaeillustrate similar types of glyphosate resistance mechanisms in fungi, plants, and bacteria, in addition to known resistance mechanisms such as mutations in Aro1 that block glyphosate binding (target-site resistance (TSR)) and mutations in efflux drug transporters non-target-site resistance (NTSR). Recently, genetic variation and mutations in an amino transporter affecting glyphosate resistance have uncovered potential off-target effects of glyphosate in fungi and bacteria. While glyphosate is a glycine analog, it is transported into cells using an aspartic/glutamic acid (D/E) transporter. The size, shape, and charge distribution of glyphosate closely resembles D/E, and, therefore, glyphosate is a D/E amino acid mimic. The mitochondria use D/E in several pathways and mRNA-encoding mitochondrial proteins are differentially expressed during glyphosate exposure. Mutants downstream of Aro1 are not only sensitive to glyphosate but also a broad range of other chemicals that cannot be rescued by exogenous supplementation of aromatic amino acids. Glyphosate also decreases the pH when unbuffered and many studies do not consider the differences in pH that affect toxicity and resistance mechanisms.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Springer Science + Business Media
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Current Genetics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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