Patterns of mating for the European corn borer (
The fall armyworm (FAW),
We re‐examined the compounds in the sex pheromone glands of FAW females by gas chromatography‐electroantennogram detector (GC‐EAD), GC–mass spectrometry (MS), behavioral and field assays. A new bioactive compound from pheromone gland extracts was detected in low amounts (3.0% relative to (
The addition of nonanal to pheromone lures should improve surveillance, monitoring and control of FAW populations. © 2023 The more »
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Pest Management Science
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- p. 2831-2839
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Influence of host plant, geography and pheromone strain on genomic differentiation in sympatric populations of Ostrinia nubilalis
Patterns of mating for the European corn borer (
Ostrinia nubilalis) moth depend in part on variation in sex‐pheromone blend. The ratio of ( E)‐11‐ and ( Z)‐11‐tetradecenyl acetate (E11‐ and Z11‐14:OAc) in the pheromone blend that females produce and males respond to differs between strains of O. nubilalis. Populations also vary in female oviposition preference for and larval performance on maize (C4) and nonmaize (C3) host plants. The relative contributions of sexual and ecological trait variation to the genetic structure of O. nubilalisremains unknown. Host‐plant use (13C/14C ratios) and genetic differentiation were estimated among sympatric E and Z pheromone strain O. nubilalismales collected in sex‐pheromone baited traps at 12 locations in Pennsylvania and New York between 2007 and 2010. Among genotypes at 65 single nucleotide polymorphism marker loci, variance at a position in the pheromone gland fatty acyl‐reductase ( pgfar) gene at the locus responsible for determining female pheromone ratio ( Pher) explained 64% of the total genetic differentiation between males attracted to different pheromones (male response, Resp), providing evidence of sexual inter‐selection at these unlinked loci. Principal coordinate, Bayesian clustering, and distance‐based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) demonstrate that host plant history or geography does not significantly contribute to population variation or differentiation among males. In contrast, these analyses indicate thatmore »
Geographic variation in male response to sex pheromone lures has been studied in the field in a number of moth species. However, only a few studies have investigated geographic variation in female calling and sex pheromone under field conditions. For an effective field implementation of sex pheromone lures, it is essential to know the local sex pheromone blend and local timing of sexual communication. We investigated the level and extent of geographic variation in the sexual communication of the important agricultural pest
Helicoverpa armigera(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in three continents. RESULTS
We found there is no genetic variation in the calling behavior of
H. armigera. In the female sex pheromone, we found more between‐population variation than within‐population variation. In male response experiments, we found geographic variation as well. Strikingly, when adding the antagonistic compound Z11‐16:OAc to the pheromone blend of H. armigera, significantly fewer males were caught in Australia and China, but not in Spain. This variation is likely not only due to local environmental conditions, such as photoperiod and temperature, but also to the presence of other closely related species with which communication interference may occur. Conclusion
Finding geographic variation in both the female sexual signal and the male response in this pest calls formore »
Ever since Darwin, evolutionary biologists have studied sexual selection driving differences in appearance and behaviour between males and females. An unchallenged paradigm in such studies is that one sex (usually the male) signals its quality as a mate to the other sex (usually the female), who is choosy in accepting a partner. Here, we hypothesize that in polygamous species these roles change dynamically with the mating status of males and females, depending on direct reproductive costs and benefits of multiple matings, and on sperm competition. We test this hypothesis by assessing fitness costs and benefits of multiple matings in both males and females in a polygamous moth species, as in moths not males but females are the signalers and males are the responders.
We found that multiple matings confer fitness costs and benefits for both sexes. Specifically, the number of matings did not affect the longevity of males or females, but only 67% of the males and 14% of the females mated successfully in all five nights. In addition, the female’s reproductive output increased with multiple matings, although when paired with a new virgin male every night, more than 3 matings decreased her reproductive output, so that the Batemanmore »
Our results suggest that choosiness in moths may well change throughout the mating season, with males being more choosy early in the season and females being more choosy after having mated at least three times. This life-history perspective on the costs and benefits of multiple matings for both sexes sheds new light on sexual selection forces acting on sexual signals and responses.
Evolution of sexually dimorphic pheromone profiles coincides with increased number of male‐specific chemosensory organs in Drosophila prolongata
Binary communication systems that involve sex‐specific signaling and sex‐specific signal perception play a key role in sexual selection and in the evolution of sexually dimorphic traits. The driving forces and genetic changes underlying such traits can be investigated in systems where sex‐specific signaling and perception have emerged recently and show evidence of potential coevolution. A promising model is found in
Drosophila prolongata, which exhibits a species‐specific increase in the number of male chemosensory bristles. We show that this transition coincides with recent evolutionary changes in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles. Long‐chain CHCs that are sexually monomorphic in the closest relatives of D. prolongata( D. rhopaloa, D. carrolli, D. kurseongensis, and D. fuyamai) are strongly male‐biased in this species. We also identify an intraspecific female‐limited polymorphism, where some females have male‐like CHC profiles. Both the origin of sexually dimorphic CHC profiles and the female‐limited polymorphism in D. prolongatainvolve changes in the relative amounts of three mono‐alkene homologs, 9‐tricosene, 9‐pentacosene, and 9‐heptacosene, all of which share a common biosynthetic origin and point to a potentially simple genetic change underlying these traits. Our results suggest that pheromone synthesis may have coevolved with chemosensory perception and open the way for reconstructing the origin of sexual dimorphism in this communication system.
The sex pheromone system of ~160,000 moth species acts as a powerful form of assortative mating whereby females attract conspecific males with a species-specific blend of volatile compounds. Understanding how female pheromone production and male preference coevolve to produce this diversity requires knowledge of the genes underlying change in both traits. In the European corn borer moth, pheromone blend variation is controlled by two alleles of an autosomal fatty-acyl reductase gene expressed in the female pheromone gland (
pgFAR). Here we show that asymmetric male preference is controlled by cis-acting variation in a sex-linked transcription factor expressed in the developing male antenna, bric à brac( bab). A genome-wide association study of preference using pheromone-trapped males implicates variation in the 293 kb babintron 1, rather than the coding sequence. Linkage disequilibrium between babintron 1 and pgFARfurther validates babas the preference locus, and demonstrates that the two genes interact to contribute to assortative mating. Thus, lack of physical linkage is not a constraint for coevolutionary divergence of female pheromone production and male behavioral response genes, in contrast to what is often predicted by evolutionary theory.