 Award ID(s):
 2005259
 NSFPAR ID:
 10420551
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics
 ISSN:
 23306580
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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The phase transition from subcritical to supercritical conditions, referred to as transcritical behavior, significantly impacts the evaporation and fuel–air mixing in highpressure liquidfuel propulsion systems. Transcritical behavior is characterized as a transition from classical twophase evaporation to a singlephase gaslike diffusion regime as surface tension and latent heat of vaporization reduce. However, the interfacial behavior represented by the surface tension coefficient and evaporation rate during this transition which are crucial inputs for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of practical transcritical fuel spray is still missing. This study aims at developing new evaporation rate and surface tension models for transcritical ndodecane droplets using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations irrespective of the droplet size. As MD simulations are primarily limited to the nanoscale, the new models can bridge the gap between MD and continuum simulations and enable the direct application of these findings to microscopic droplets. A new characteristic timescale, i.e., “undroplet time,” is defined which marks the transition from classical twophase evaporation to singlephase gaslike diffusion behavior. The undroplet time indicates the onset of droplet core disintegration and penetration of nitrogen molecules into the droplet, which occurs after the vanishment of the surface tension. By normalizing the time with respect to the undroplet time, the rate of surface tension decay, evaporation rate, and the rate of droplet mass depletion become independent of the droplet size. Calculation of pairwise correlation coefficients for the entire MD results shows that both surface tension coefficient and evaporation rate are strongly correlated with the background temperature, while pressure and droplet size play a less significant role past the critical point. Therefore, new models for surface tension coefficient and evaporation rate spanning from sub to supercritical conditions are developed as a function of background pressure and temperature, which can be used in continuum simulations. The identified phase change behavior based on the undroplet time shows a good agreement with the phase change regime maps obtained using microscale experiments and nanoscale MD predictions.more » « less

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Soft objects squeezing through small apertures are crucial for many in vivo and in vitro processes. Red blood cell transit time through splenic interendothelial slits (IESs) plays a crucial role in blood filtration and disease progression, while droplet velocity through constrictions in microfluidic devices is important for effective manipulation and separation processes. As these transit phenomena are not well understood, we sought to establish analytical and numerical solutions of viscous droplet transit through a rectangular slit. This study extends from our former theory of a circular pore because a rectangular slit is more realistic in many physiological and engineering applications. Here, we derived the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of a droplet passing through a slit by combining planar Poiseuille flow, the Young–Laplace equations, and modifying them to consider the lubrication layer between the droplet and the slit wall. Compared to the pore case, we used the Roscoe solution instead of the Sampson one to account for the flow entering and exiting a rectangular slit. When the surface tension and lubrication layer were negligible, we derived the closedform solutions of transit time. When the surface tension and lubrication layer were finite, the ODEs were solved numerically to study the impact of various parameters on the transit time. With our solutions, we identified the impact of prescribed pressure drop, slit dimensions, and droplet parameters such as surface tension, viscosity, and volume on transit time. In addition, we also considered the effect of pressure drop and surface tension near critical values. For this study, critical surface tension for a given pressure drop describes the threshold droplet surface tension that prevents transit, and critical pressure for a given surface tension describes the threshold pressure drop that prevents transit. Our solutions demonstrate that there is a linear relationship between pressure and the reciprocal of the transit time (referred to as inverse transit time), as well as a linear relationship between viscosity and transit time. Additionally, when the droplet size increases with respect to the slit dimensions, there is a corresponding increase in transit time. Most notably, we emphasize the initial antagonistic effect of surface tension which resists droplet passage but at the same time decreases the lubrication layer, thus facilitating passage. Our results provide quantitative calculations for understanding cells passing through slitlike constrictions and designing droplet microfluidic experiments.