skip to main content

Title: Seismic performance cold-Formed steel framed shear walls using in-Frame corrugated steel sheathing

To meet the increasing demand for high strength and non-combustible shear wall systems in mid-rise cold-formed steel (CFS) constructions, this paper investigates the seismic performance and design method of an innovative CFS shear wall system with in-frame corrugated steel sheathing based on previous studies. Shear wall and bearing wall specimens with in-frame corrugated steel sheathing are tested under combined lateral and gravity loading. Simplified numerical models of whole archetype buildings are established. The seismic performance evaluation is performed using methodology recommended in FEMA P695 and the seismic performance factors are examined. The test results show that the shear strength of the innovative shear wall is much higher than currently code certified wood-based shear walls in AISI S400. Also, the shear strength of bearing walls is approximately one-third of the shear strength of shear walls, which proves that bearing walls also contribute significant shear resistance in a structure. The seismic performance evaluation results verified that the existing seismic performance factors (R = Cd = 6.5 and [Formula: see text] = 3.0) for CFS shear walls with flat steel sheathings can also be used for the innovative shear wall system. The innovative CFS shear wall system with in-frame corrugated steel sheathing could be employed for mid-rise buildings in areas that are prone to high seismic and wind loads.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
SAGE Publications
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advances in Structural Engineering
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 1988-2005
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Summary

    The objective of this paper is to present incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) and seismic performance evaluation results for a two‐story cold‐formed steel (CFS)–framed building. The archetype building was designed to current U.S. standards and then subjected to full‐scale shake table tests under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. Test results showed that the building's stiffness and capacity were considerably higher than expected and the building suffered only nonstructural damage even at excitations in excess of Maximum Considered Earthquake levels for a high seismic zone. For the archetype building, three‐dimensional finite element models at different modeling fidelity levels were created using OpenSees. The models are subjected to IDA using the far‐field ground motion records prescribed in Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) P695. Seismic performance quantification following the FEMA P695 procedure shows that if the modeling fidelity only follows the state‐of‐the‐practice, ie, only includes shear walls, unsafe collapse margin ratios are predicted. State‐of‐the‐art models that account for participation from CFS gravity walls and architectural sheathing have overall performance that are consistent with testing, and IDA results indicate acceptable collapse margin ratios, predicated primarily on large system overstrength. Neglecting the lateral force resistance of the gravity system and nonstructural components, as done in current design, renders a safe design in the studied archetype, but largely divorced from actual system behavior. The modeling protocols established here provide a means to analyze a future suite of CFS‐framed archetype buildings for developing further insight on the seismic response modification coefficients for CFS‐framed buildings.

    more » « less
  2. Blass, Hans (Ed.)
    Wood buildings in North American has been predominantly constructed using light-framed wood systems since early 1900’s, with only limited exception of heavy timber construction in some non-residential applications. This situation is likely to change in the future with the growing acceptance of mass timber construction in the region. In fact, a number of mass timber buildings have been constructed in recent years in the U.S. and Canada, including low- to mid-rise mixed-use buildings (e.g. UMass Student Center, T3 building) and tall towers (e.g. Brocks Commons at UBC). Most of these buildings utilized cross laminated timber (CLT) or nail laminated timber (NLT) floors and heavy timber framing systems to support gravity loads, and a non-wood lateral system such as concrete shear walls or a braced steel frame to resist wind and seismic loads. Although CLT material and glulam products have been recognized in the U.S. and Canada (IBC (2018) and NBCC (2015), there is currently no mass timber lateral systems in the U.S. and only one system (platform style panelized CLT shear wall) in Canada that is currently recognized by the building codes. As a result, special design procedures and review/approval processes must be followed for any building intended to use a mass timber lateral system. There is a need to promote codification of mass timber lateral systems in order to help further develop mass timber building market in North American. At the time of this paper, there has been an on-going effort to devel-op seismic design parameters for panelized CLT shear walls in the U.S. (ref) following the FEMA P695 procedure for platform construction. The other lateral system that at-tracted significant attention and research resources is post-tensioned CLT rocking wall system, which has the potential to be applicable to balloon framed low-rise to tall wood buildings. This paper will focus on recent research development on CLT rocking wall system in the U.S. and the effort to develop a seismic design procedure for this system for inclusion in the NDS Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SPDWS)(2008). While the expensive and time consuming process of the FEMA P695 process would provide the ability to use the equivalent lateral force method for design purposes, this path is not part of the discussion included here. 
    more » « less
  3. To advance understanding of the multihazard performance of midrise cold-formed steel (CFS) construction, a unique multidisciplinary experimental program was conducted on the Large High-Performance Outdoor Shake Table (LHPOST) at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The centerpiece of this project involved earthquake and live fire testing of a full-scale 6-story CFS wall braced building. Initially, the building was subjected to seven earthquake tests of increasing motion intensity, sequentially targeting service, design, and maximum credible earthquake (MCE) demands. Subsequently, live fire tests were conducted on the earthquake-damaged building at two select floors. Finally, for the first time, the test building was subjected to two postfire earthquake tests, including a low-amplitude aftershock and an extreme near-fault target MCE-scaled motion. In addition, low-amplitude white noise and ambient vibration data were collected during construction and seismic testing phases to support identification of the dynamic state of the building system. This paper offers an overview of this unique multihazard test program and presents the system-level structural responses and physical damage features of the test building throughout the earthquake-fire-earthquake test phases, whereas the component-level seismic behavior of the shear walls and seismic design implications of CFS-framed building systems are discussed in a companion paper. 
    more » « less
  4. This research investigated experimentally the seismic performance of steel gravity framing with a concrete slab at the system level. Two half-story, two-by-three bay steel gravity frame specimens were tested under cyclic loading. Bolted-bolted double-angle connections were used for a beam-to-column gravity connection. Primary design variables and construction details include the orientation of the metal deck to the loading direction, the presence or absence of metal deck seams on secondary beams, and the contribution of additional reinforcement bars in the concrete slab. Concrete blocks were positioned at the midpoint of each bay to simulate gravity loads, and a quasi-static displacement-controlled cyclic loading protocol was applied to the specimen using three hydraulic actuators. These investigations confirmed general observations from previous subassembly testing programs that the composite steel gravity framing system can provide substantial flexural stiffness, strength, and ductility under cyclic loading. Further, the test findings showed that the primary design variables and construction details significantly affected the cyclic behavior of composite gravity connections. Comparing the test results from a multi-bay setup and a subassembly testing setup, the cyclic behavior showed remarkable differences, especially for cases with weak axis decking or strong axis decking with a seam. These large differences are attributed to a significant separation of the girder from the column in the subassembly testing setup, which may not be present in a real building. Virtually all previous cyclic loading tests on gravity connections have been conducted in subassembly test setups. These subassembly tests are therefore the basis for the models that are currently used to include gravity frame connections in the seismic performance assessment of buildings, and these models may be quite inaccurate in some cases. The data generated in this system-level testing program is intended to support efforts to develop improved models of gravity connections subject to seismic loading. 
    more » « less
  5. Driven by demand for sustainable buildings and a reduction in construction time, mass timber buildings, specifically cross-laminated timber (CLT), is being more widely used in mid-rise buildings in the US. Low damage post-tensioned self-centering (SC) CLT shear walls (SC-CLT walls) provide an opportunity to develop seismically resilient CLT buildings. Previous research focused primarily on the lateral-load response under unidirectional loading of isolated self-centering timber walls, without considering the interaction with the adjacent building structural components, i.e., the floor diaphragms, collector beams, and gravity load system. Buildings response under seismic loading is multidirectional and there are concerns that multidirectional loading may be more damaging to SC-CLT wall panels and the adjacent building structural components than unidirectional loading, which affects the potential seismic resilience of buildings with SC-CLT walls. A series of lateral-load tests of a 0.625-scale timber sub-assembly was conducted at the NHERI Lehigh Large-Scale Multi-Directional Hybrid Simulation Experimental Facility to investigate the the lateral-load response and damage of SC-CLT walls and the capability of the adjacent building structural components i.e., the floor diaphragms, collector beams, and gravity load system to accommodate the building response and the controlled-rocking of the SC-CLT walls under multidirectional lateral loading. 
    more » « less