The global cost of diabetes care exceeds $1 trillion each year with more than $327 billion being spent in the United States alone. Despite some of the advances in diabetes care including continuous glucose monitoring systems and insulin pumps, the technology associated with managing diabetes has largely remained unchanged over the past several decades. With the rise of wearable electronics and novel functional materials, the field is well‐poised for the next generation of closed‐loop diabetes care. Wearable glucose sensors implanted within diverse platforms including skin or on‐tooth tattoos, skin‐mounted patches, eyeglasses, contact lenses, fabrics, mouthguards, and pacifiers have enabled noninvasive, unobtrusive, and real‐time analysis of glucose excursions in ambulatory care settings. These wearable glucose sensors can be integrated with implantable drug delivery systems, including an insulin pump, glucose responsive insulin release implant, and islets transplantation, to form self‐regulating closed‐loop systems. This review article encompasses the emerging trends and latest innovations of wearable glucose monitoring and implantable insulin delivery technologies for diabetes management with a focus on their advanced materials and construction. Perspectives on the current unmet challenges of these strategies are also discussed to motivate future technological development toward improved patient care in diabetes management.
This content will become publicly available on June 12, 2024
Diabetes is one of the most pressing healthcare challenges facing society. Dysfunctional insulin signaling causes diabetes, leading to blood glucose instability and many associated complications. While the administration of exogenous insulin is then essential for achieving glucose control, issues with dosing accuracy and timing remain. Hydrogel‐based drug delivery systems have been broadly explored for controlled protein release, including for applications in long‐lasting and oral insulin delivery. More recently, efforts have focused on injectable hydrogels with glucose‐directed controlled release of insulin and glucagon, aiming for more autonomous and biomimetic approaches to blood glucose control. These materials typically use protein‐based sensing mechanisms or glucose binding by synthetic aryl boronates for glucose‐directed release. Despite advancements in this area, there remains a need for more precise timing of therapeutic availability to afford healthy blood glucose homeostasis, providing an opportunity for further research and innovation. This review summarizes the current state of hydrogel‐based delivery of insulin and glucagon, with insights into the potential benefits, future directions, and challenges that must be overcome to achieve clinical impact.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Advanced Therapeutics
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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