This content will become publicly available on May 26, 2024
 Award ID(s):
 2207663
 NSFPAR ID:
 10426448
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 The European Physical Journal Special Topics
 ISSN:
 19516355
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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INTRODUCTION Solving quantum manybody problems, such as finding ground states of quantum systems, has farreaching consequences for physics, materials science, and chemistry. Classical computers have facilitated many profound advances in science and technology, but they often struggle to solve such problems. Scalable, faulttolerant quantum computers will be able to solve a broad array of quantum problems but are unlikely to be available for years to come. Meanwhile, how can we best exploit our powerful classical computers to advance our understanding of complex quantum systems? Recently, classical machine learning (ML) techniques have been adapted to investigate problems in quantum manybody physics. So far, these approaches are mostly heuristic, reflecting the general paucity of rigorous theory in ML. Although they have been shown to be effective in some intermediatesize experiments, these methods are generally not backed by convincing theoretical arguments to ensure good performance. RATIONALE A central question is whether classical ML algorithms can provably outperform nonML algorithms in challenging quantum manybody problems. We provide a concrete answer by devising and analyzing classical ML algorithms for predicting the properties of ground states of quantum systems. We prove that these ML algorithms can efficiently and accurately predict groundstate properties of gapped local Hamiltonians, after learning from data obtained by measuring other ground states in the same quantum phase of matter. Furthermore, under a widely accepted complexitytheoretic conjecture, we prove that no efficient classical algorithm that does not learn from data can achieve the same prediction guarantee. By generalizing from experimental data, ML algorithms can solve quantum manybody problems that could not be solved efficiently without access to experimental data. RESULTS We consider a family of gapped local quantum Hamiltonians, where the Hamiltonian H ( x ) depends smoothly on m parameters (denoted by x ). The ML algorithm learns from a set of training data consisting of sampled values of x , each accompanied by a classical representation of the ground state of H ( x ). These training data could be obtained from either classical simulations or quantum experiments. During the prediction phase, the ML algorithm predicts a classical representation of ground states for Hamiltonians different from those in the training data; groundstate properties can then be estimated using the predicted classical representation. Specifically, our classical ML algorithm predicts expectation values of products of local observables in the ground state, with a small error when averaged over the value of x . The run time of the algorithm and the amount of training data required both scale polynomially in m and linearly in the size of the quantum system. Our proof of this result builds on recent developments in quantum information theory, computational learning theory, and condensed matter theory. Furthermore, under the widely accepted conjecture that nondeterministic polynomialtime (NP)–complete problems cannot be solved in randomized polynomial time, we prove that no polynomialtime classical algorithm that does not learn from data can match the prediction performance achieved by the ML algorithm. In a related contribution using similar proof techniques, we show that classical ML algorithms can efficiently learn how to classify quantum phases of matter. In this scenario, the training data consist of classical representations of quantum states, where each state carries a label indicating whether it belongs to phase A or phase B . The ML algorithm then predicts the phase label for quantum states that were not encountered during training. The classical ML algorithm not only classifies phases accurately, but also constructs an explicit classifying function. Numerical experiments verify that our proposed ML algorithms work well in a variety of scenarios, including Rydberg atom systems, twodimensional random Heisenberg models, symmetryprotected topological phases, and topologically ordered phases. CONCLUSION We have rigorously established that classical ML algorithms, informed by data collected in physical experiments, can effectively address some quantum manybody problems. These rigorous results boost our hopes that classical ML trained on experimental data can solve practical problems in chemistry and materials science that would be too hard to solve using classical processing alone. Our arguments build on the concept of a succinct classical representation of quantum states derived from randomized Pauli measurements. 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Linear quantum measurements with independent particles are bounded by the standard quantum limit, which limits the precision achievable in estimating unknown phase parameters. The standard quantum limit can be overcome by entangling the particles, but the sensitivity is often limited by the final state readout, especially for complex entangled manybody states with nonGaussian probability distributions. Here, by implementing an effective timereversal protocol in an optically engineered manybody spin Hamiltonian, we demonstrate a quantum measurement with nonGaussian states with performance beyond the limit of the readout scheme. This signal amplification through a timereversed interaction achieves the greatest phase sensitivity improvement beyond the standard quantum limit demonstrated to date in any full Ramsey interferometer. These results open the field of robust timereversalbased measurement protocols offering precision not too far from the Heisenberg limit. Potential applications include quantum sensors that operate at finite bandwidth, and the principle we demonstrate may also advance areas such as quantum engineering, quantum measurements and the search for new physics using opticaltransition atomic clocks.more » « less

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In twophase materials, each phase having a nonlocal response in time, it has been found that for some driving fields the response somehow untangles at specific times, and allows one to directly infer useful information about the geometry of the material, such as the volume fractions of the phases. Motivated by this, and to obtain an algorithm for designing appropriate driving fields, we find approximate, measure independent, linear relations between the values that Markov functions take at a given set of possibly complex points, not belonging to the interval [1,1] where the measure is supported. The problem is reduced to simply one of polynomial approximation of a given function on the interval [1,1] and, to simplify the analysis, Chebyshev approximation is used. This allows one to obtain explicit estimates of the error of the approximation, in terms of the number of points and the minimum distance of the points to the interval [1,1]. Assuming this minimum distance is bounded below by a number greater than 1/2, the error converges exponentially to zero as the number of points is increased. Approximate linear relations are also obtained that incorporate a set of moments of the measure. In the context of the motivating problem, the analysis also yields bounds on the response at any particular time for any driving field, and allows one to estimate the response at a given frequency using an appropriately designed driving field that effectively is turned on only for a fixed interval of time. The approximation extends directly to Markovtype functions with a positive semidefinite operator valued measure, and this has applications to determining the shape of an inclusion in a body from boundary flux measurements at a specific time, when the timedependent boundary potentials are suitably tailored.more » « less

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