skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on July 21, 2024

Title: Large deviations principle for the cubic NLS equation

In this paper, we present a probabilistic study of rare phenomena of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on the torus in a weakly nonlinear setting. This equation has been used as a model to numerically study the formation of rogue waves in deep sea. Our results are twofold: first, we introduce a notion of criticality and prove a Large Deviations Principle (LDP) for the subcritical and critical cases. Second, we study the most likely initial conditions that lead to the formation of a rogue wave, from a theoretical and numerical point of view. Finally, we propose several open questions for future research.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We construct the multi‐breather solutions of the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on the background of elliptic functions by the Darboux transformation, and express them in terms of the determinant of theta functions. The dynamics of the breathers in the presence of various kinds of backgrounds such as dn, cn, and nontrivial phase‐modulating elliptic solutions are presented, and their behaviors dependent on the effect of backgrounds are elucidated. We also determine the asymptotic behaviors for the multibreather solutions with different velocities in the limit, where the solution in the neighborhood of each breather tends to the simple one‐breather solution. Furthermore, we exactly solve the linearized NLSE using the squared eigenfunction and determine the unstable spectra for elliptic function background. By using them, the Akhmediev breathers arising from these modulational instabilities are plotted and their dynamics are revealed. Finally, we provide the rogue wave and higher order rogue wave solutions by taking the special limit of the breather solutions at branch points and the generalized Darboux transformation. The resulting dynamics of the rogue waves involves rich phenomena, depending on the choice of the background and possessing different velocities relative to the background. We also provide an example of the multi‐ and higher order rogue wave solution.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract Up to the third-order rogue wave solutions of the Sasa–Satsuma (SS) equation are derived based on the Hirota’s bilinear method and Kadomtsev–Petviashvili hierarchy reduction method. They are expressed explicitly by rational functions with both the numerator and denominator being the determinants of even order. Four types of intrinsic structures are recognized according to the number of zero-amplitude points. The first- and second-order rogue wave solutions agree with the solutions obtained so far by the Darboux transformation. In spite of the very complicated solution form compared with the ones of many other integrable equations, the third-order rogue waves exhibit two configurations: either a triangle or a distorted pentagon. Both the types and configurations of the third-order rogue waves are determined by different choices of free parameters. As the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is a limiting case of the SS equation, it is shown that the degeneration of the first-order rogue wave of the SS equation converges to the Peregrine soliton. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract General rogue waves in (1+1)-dimensional three-wave resonant interaction systems are derived by the bilinear method. These solutions are divided into three families, which correspond to a simple root, two simple roots and a double root of a certain quartic equation arising from the dimension reduction, respectively. It is shown that while the first family of solutions associated with a simple root exists for all signs of the nonlinear coefficients in the three-wave interaction equations, the other two families of solutions associated with two simple roots and a double root can only exist in the so-called soliton-exchange case, where the nonlinear coefficients have certain signs. Many of these rogue wave solutions, such as those associated with two simple roots, the ones generated by a $2\times 2$ block determinant in the double-root case, and higher-order solutions associated with a simple root, are new solutions which have not been reported before. Technically, our bilinear derivation of rogue waves for the double-root case is achieved by a generalization to the previous dimension reduction procedure in the bilinear method, and this generalized procedure allows us to treat roots of arbitrary multiplicities. Dynamics of the derived rogue waves is also examined, and new rogue wave patterns are presented. Connection between these bilinear rogue waves and those derived earlier by Darboux transformation is also explained. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We show that new types of rogue wave patterns exist in integrable systems, and these rogue patterns are described by root structures of Okamoto polynomial hierarchies. These rogue patterns arise when the τ functions of rogue wave solutions are determinants of Schur polynomials with index jumps of three, and an internal free parameter in these rogue waves gets large. We demonstrate these new rogue patterns in the Manakov system and the three‐wave resonant interaction system. For each system, we derive asymptotic predictions of its rogue patterns under a large internal parameter through Okamoto polynomial hierarchies. Unlike the previously reported rogue patterns associated with the Yablonskii–Vorob'ev hierarchy, a new feature in the present rogue patterns is that the mapping from the root structure of Okamoto‐hierarchy polynomials to the shape of the rogue pattern is linear only to the leading order, but becomes nonlinear to the next order. As a consequence, the current rogue patterns are often deformed, sometimes strongly deformed, from Okamoto‐hierarchy root structures, unless the underlying internal parameter is very large. Our analytical predictions of rogue patterns are compared to true solutions, and excellent agreement is observed, even when rogue patterns are strongly deformed from Okamoto‐hierarchy root structures.

    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    It has been shown analytically that Peregrine solitons emerge locally from a universal mechanism in the so-called semiclassical limit of the one-dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Experimentally, this limit corresponds to the strongly nonlinear regime where the dispersion is much weaker than nonlinearity at initial time. We review here evidences of this phenomenon obtained on different experimental platforms. In particular, the spontaneous emergence of coherent structures exhibiting locally the Peregrine soliton behavior has been demonstrated in optical fiber experiments involving either single pulse or partially coherent waves. We also review theoretical and numerical results showing the link between this phenomenon and the emergence of heavy-tailed statistics (rogue waves). 
    more » « less