skip to main content


Title: The role of carbon and C-H neutralization in MOCVD β-Ga2O3 using TMGa as precursor
In this Letter, the role of background carbon in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) β-Ga2O3 growth using trimethylgallium (TMGa) as the Ga precursor was investigated. The quantitative C and H incorporations in MOCVD β-Ga2O3 thin films grown at different growth rates and temperatures were measured via quantitative secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The SIMS results revealed both [C] and [H] increase as the TMGa molar flow rate/growth rate increases or growth temperature decreases. The intentional Si incorporation in MOCVD β-Ga2O3 thin films decreases as the growth rate increases or the growth temperature decreases. For films grown at relatively fast growth rates (GRs) (TMGa > 58 μmol/min, GR > 2.8 μm/h) or relatively low temperature (<950 °C), the [C] increases faster than that of the [H]. The experimental results from this study demonstrate the previously predicted theory—H can effectively passivate the compensation effect of C in n-type β-Ga2O3. The extracted net doping concentration from quantitative SIMS {[Si]-([C]-[H])} agrees well with the free carrier concentration measured from Hall measurement. The revealing of the role of C compensation in MOCVD β-Ga2O3 and the effect of H incorporation will provide guidance on designing material synthesis for targeted device applications.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2019753 2231026
NSF-PAR ID:
10436044
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Volume:
122
Issue:
23
ISSN:
0003-6951
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In this work, the structural and electrical properties of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited Si-doped β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 thin films grown on (010) β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates are investigated as a function of Al composition. The room temperature Hall mobility of 101 cm 2 /V s and low temperature peak mobility (T = 65 K) of 1157 cm 2 /V s at carrier concentrations of 6.56 × 10 17 and 2.30 × 10 17  cm −3 are measured from 6% Al composition samples, respectively. The quantitative secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) characterization reveals a strong dependence of Si and other unintentional impurities, such as C, H, and Cl concentrations in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 thin films, with different Al compositions. Higher Al compositions in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 result in lower net carrier concentrations due to the reduction of Si incorporation efficiency and the increase of C and H impurity levels that act as compensating acceptors in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films. Lowering the growth chamber pressure reduces Si concentrations in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films due to the increase of Al compositions as evidenced by comprehensive SIMS and Hall characterizations. Due to the increase of lattice mismatch between the epifilm and substrate, higher Al compositions lead to cracking in β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films grown on β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates. The (100) cleavage plane is identified as a major cracking plane limiting the growth of high-quality Si-doped (010) β-(Al x Ga 1−x ) 2 O 3 films beyond the critical thicknesses, which leads to highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous behaviors in terms of conductivity. 
    more » « less
  2. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growths of β-Ga 2 O 3 on on-axis (100) Ga 2 O 3 substrates are comprehensively investigated. Key MOCVD growth parameters including growth temperature, pressure, group VI/III molar flow rate ratio, and carrier gas flow rate are mapped. The dependence of the growth conditions is correlated with surface morphology, growth rate, and electron transport properties of the MOCVD grown (100) β-Ga 2 O 3 thin films. Lower shroud gas (argon) flow is found to enhance the surface smoothness with higher room temperature (RT) electron Hall mobility. The growth rate of the films decreases but with an increase of electron mobility as the VI/III molar flow rate ratio increases. Although no significant variation on the surface morphologies is observed at different growth temperatures, the general trend of electron Hall mobilities are found to increase with increasing growth temperature. The growth rates reduce significantly with uniform surface morphologies as the chamber pressure increases. By tuning the silane flow rate, the controllable carrier concentration of (100) β-Ga 2 O 3 thin films between low-10 17  cm −3 and low-10 18  cm −3 was achieved. Under optimized growth condition, an (100) β-Ga 2 O 3 thin film with RMS roughness value of 1.64 nm and a RT mobility of 24 cm 2 /Vs at a carrier concentration of 7.0 × 10 17  cm −3 are demonstrated. The mobilities are primarily limited by the twin lamellae and stacking faults defects generated from the growth interface. Atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals the formation of twin boundary defects in the films, resulting in the degradation of crystalline quality. Results from this work provide fundamental understanding of the MOCVD epitaxy of (100) β-Ga 2 O 3 on on-axis Ga 2 O 3 substrates and the dependence of the material properties on growth conditions. The limitation of electron transport properties of the (100) β-Ga 2 O 3 thin films below 25 cm 2 /Vs is attributed to the formation of incoherent boundaries (twin lamellae) and stacking faults grown along the on-axis (100) crystal orientation. 
    more » « less
  3. We report the use of suboxide molecular-beam epitaxy (S-MBE) to grow β-Ga2O3 at a growth rate of ∼1 μm/h with control of the silicon doping concentration from 5 × 1016 to 1019 cm−3 . In S-MBE, pre-oxidized gallium in the form of a molecular beam that is 99.98% Ga2O, i.e., gallium suboxide, is supplied. Directly supplying Ga2O to the growth surface bypasses the rate-limiting frst step of the two-step reaction mechanism involved in the growth of β-Ga2O3 by conventional MBE. As a result, a growth rate of ∼1 μm/h is readily achieved at a relatively low growth temperature (Tsub ≈ 525 ○C), resulting in flms with high structural perfection and smooth surfaces (rms roughness of <2 nm on ∼1 μm thick flms). Silicon-containing oxide sources (SiO and SiO2) producing an SiO suboxide molecular beam are used to dope the β-Ga2O3 layers. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements on a 1 μm thick flm with a mobile carrier concentration of 2.7 × 1017 cm−3 reveal a room-temperature mobility of 124 cm2 V−1 s −1 that increases to 627 cm2 V −1 s−1 at 76 K; the silicon dopants are found to exhibit an activation energy of 27 meV. We also demonstrate working metal–semiconductor feld-effect transistors made from these silicon-doped β-Ga2O3 flms grown by S-MBE at growth rates of ∼1 μm/h. 
    more » « less
  4. Growing a thick high-quality epitaxial layer on the β-Ga2O3 substrate is crucial in commercializing β-Ga2O3 devices. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is also well-established for the large-scale commercial growth of β-Ga2O3 and related heterostructures. This paper presents a systematic study of the Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on two different Si-doped homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3 thin films grown on Sn-doped (001) and (010) β-Ga2O3 substrates by MOCVD. X-ray diffraction analysis of the MOCVD-grown sample, room temperature current density–voltage data for different Schottky diodes, and C–V measurements are presented. Diode characteristics, such as ideality factor, barrier height, specific on-resistance, and breakdown voltage, are studied. Temperature dependence (170–360 K) of the ideality factor, barrier height, and Poole–Frenkel reverse leakage mechanism are also analyzed from the J–V–T characteristics of the fabricated Schottky diodes.

     
    more » « less
  5. Obtaining uniform silicon concentration, especially with low concentrations (ranging from 1 × 1016 to 1 × 1018 cm−3) by molecular beam epitaxy, has been challenging due to oxidation of a silicon solid source in the oxide environment. In this work, Si doping of β-Ga2O3 (010) films by diluted disilane as the Si source is investigated using hybrid plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The impact of growth temperature, disilane source concentration, and disilane flow rate on Si incorporation was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Uniform Si concentrations ranging from 3 × 1016 to 2 × 1019 cm−3 are demonstrated. Si-doped β-Ga2O3 films with different silicon concentrations were grown on Fe-doped β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. The electron concentration and mobility were determined using van de Pauw Hall measurements. A high mobility of 135 cm2/V s was measured for an electron concentration of 3.4 × 1017 cm−3 at room temperature.

     
    more » « less