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Title: Reducing temperature swing of space objects with temperature-adaptive solar or radiative coating
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Cell Reports Physical Science
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Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    The nonnormality of temperature probability distributions and the physics that drive it are important due to their relationships to the frequency of extreme warm and cold events. Here we use a conditional mean framework to explore how horizontal temperature advection and other physical processes work together to control the shape of daily temperature distributions during 1979–2019 in the ERA5 dataset for both JJA and DJF. We demonstrate that the temperature distribution in the middle and high latitudes can largely be linearly explained by the conditional mean horizontal temperature advection with the simple treatment of other processes as a Newtonian relaxation with a spatially variant relaxation time scale and equilibrium temperature. We analyze the role of different transient and stationary components of the horizontal temperature advection in affecting the shape of temperature distributions. The anomalous advection of the stationary temperature gradient has a dominant effect in influencing temperature variance, while both that term and the covariance between anomalous wind and anomalous temperature have significant effects on temperature skewness. While this simple method works well over most of the ocean, the advection–temperature relationship is more complicated over land. We classify land regions with different advection–temperature relationships under our framework, and find that for both seasons the aforementioned linear relationship can explain ∼30% of land area, and can explain either the lower or the upper half of temperature distributions in an additional ∼30% of land area. Identifying the regions where temperature advection explains shapes of temperature distributions well will help us gain more confidence in understanding the future change of temperature distributions and extreme events.

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  2. The effect of the annealing temperature of polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes on H2/CO2 gas separations was investigated. Membranes annealed from 250 ◦C to 400 ◦C were tested for gas permeation with pure H2, CO2, and N2 gases and a H2:CO2 (1:1) mixture at 35 ◦C, 100 ◦C, 200 ◦C, and 300 ◦C and at pressures up to 45 bar. Gas permeation data show that permeability and selectivity of the membranes is significantly impacted by the annealing temperature, the presence of adsorbed water, and remaining casting solvent (DMAc). At a testing temperature of 35 ◦C, ideal H2/CO2 selectivities of 50, 49, and 66 with pure H2 permeabilities of 1.5, 0.8, and 1.5 Barrer were obtained for membranes annealed at 250 ◦C, 300 ◦C, and 400 ◦C, respectively. At this temperature, high gas mixture H2/CO2 selectivities of 41, 73, and 47 with H2 permeabilities of 1.03, 0.26, and 0.50 Barrer were also obtained for these membranes. At testing temperatures of 300 ◦C, both the ideal and gas mixture H2/ CO2 selectivities dropped to 44, 28, and 30 (ideal, H2 = 45, 45, 44 Barrer) and to 19, 22, and 23 (mixture, H2 = 41, 43, and 44 Barrer) for membranes annealed at 250 ◦C, 300 ◦C, and 400 ◦C, respectively. As water was removed from the membranes at temperatures greater than 100 ◦C during permeation cycles, where the testing temperature was increased from 35 ◦C to 300 ◦C, the permselectivity properties of the membranes annealed at 400 ◦C became more reproducible. Permeabilities at 35 ◦C from a second permeability cycle increased, but H2/ CO2 selectivities decreased to 21 for gas mixtures (H2 = 1.4 Barrer) and to 34 for pure gases (H2 = 2.2 Barrer). The results suggest that high annealing temperatures may induce changes in the configuration and conformation of the polymer chains, imparting distinctive permselectivity properties to the membranes. Activation energies of permeability for H2, CO2, and N2 from pure gases and H2:CO2 mixtures correlated with these changes as well. 
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    The environment experienced during embryonic development is a rich source of phenotypic variation, as environmental signals have the potential to both inform adaptive plastic responses and disrupt normal developmental programs. Environment-by-embryo interactions are particularly consequential for species with temperature-dependent sex determination, a mode of sex determination common in non-avian reptiles and fish, in which thermal cues during a discrete period of development drive the formation of either an ovary or a testis. Here we examine the impact of thermal variation during incubation in combination with developmental exposure to a common endocrine-disrupting contaminant on fitness-related hatchling traits in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination. Using a factorial design, we exposed field-collected eggs to five thermal profiles (three constant temperatures, two fluctuating temperatures) and two environmentally relevant doses of the pesticide metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; and we quantified incubation duration, sex ratios, hatchling morphometric traits, and growth (9–10 days post-hatch). Whereas dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene exposure did not generally affect hatchling traits, constant and fluctuating temperatures produced diverse phenotypic effects. Thermal fluctuations led to subtle changes in incubation duration and produced shorter hatchlings with smaller heads when compared to the constant temperature control. Warmer, male-promoting incubation temperatures resulted in larger hatchlings with more residual yolk reserves when compared to cooler, female-promoting temperatures. Together, these findings advance our understanding of how complex environmental factors interact with developing organisms to generate phenotypic variation and raise questions regarding the mechanisms connecting variable thermal conditions to responses in hatchling traits and their evolutionary implications for temperature-dependent sex determination. 
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