skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, May 17 until 8:00 AM ET on Saturday, May 18 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


This content will become publicly available on June 20, 2024

Title: Forecasting Magnitude and Frequency of Seasonal Streamflow Extremes Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Framework
Abstract

We develop a space‐time Bayesian hierarchical modeling (BHM) framework for two flood risk attributes—seasonal daily maximum flow and the number of events that exceed a threshold during a season (NEETM)—at a suite of gauge locations on a river network. The model uses generalized extreme value (GEV) and Poisson distributions as marginals for these flood attributes with non‐stationary parameters. The rate parameters of the Poisson distribution and location, scale, and shape parameters of the GEV are modeled as linear functions of suitable covariates. Gaussian copulas are applied to capture the spatial dependence. The best covariates are selected using the Watanabe‐Akaike information criterion (WAIC). The modeling framework results in the posterior distribution of the flood attributes at all the gauges and various lead times. We demonstrate the utility of this modeling framework to forecast the flood risk attributes during the summer peak monsoon season (July‐August) at five gauges in the Narmada River basin (NRB) of West‐Central India for several lead times (0–3 months). As potential covariates, we consider climate indices such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Pacific Warm Pool Region (PWPR) from antecedent seasons, which have shown strong teleconnections with the Indian monsoon. We also include new indices related to the East Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions depending on the lead times. We show useful long lead skill from this modeling approach which has a strong potential to enable robust risk‐based flood mitigation and adaptation strategies 3 months before flood occurrences.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1923062
NSF-PAR ID:
10439981
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Water Resources Research
Volume:
59
Issue:
7
ISSN:
0043-1397
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract. The Indian Ocean presents two distinct climate regimes. The north Indian Ocean is dominated by the monsoons, whereas the seasonal reversal is less pronounced in the south. The prevailing wind pattern produces upwelling along different parts of the coast in both hemispheres during different times of the year. Additionally, dynamical processes and eddies either cause or enhance upwelling. This paper reviews the phenomena of upwelling along the coast of the Indian Ocean extending from the tip of South Africa to the southern tip of the west coast of Australia. Observed features, underlying mechanisms, and the impact of upwelling on the ecosystem are presented. In the Agulhas Current region, cyclonic eddies associated with Natal pulses drive slope upwelling and enhance chlorophyll concentrations along the continental margin. The Durban break-away eddy spun up by the Agulhas upwells cold nutrient-rich water. Additionally, topographically induced upwelling occurs along the inshore edges of the Agulhas Current. Wind-driven coastal upwelling occurs along the south coast of Africa and augments the dynamical upwelling in the Agulhas Current. Upwelling hotspots along the Mozambique coast are present in the northern and southern sectors of the channel and are ascribed to dynamical effects of ocean circulation in addition to wind forcing. Interaction of mesoscale eddies with the western boundary, dipole eddy pair interactions, and passage of cyclonic eddies cause upwelling. Upwelling along the southern coast of Madagascar is caused by the Ekman wind-driven mechanism and by eddy generation and is inhibited by the Southwest Madagascar Coastal Current. Seasonal upwelling along the East African coast is primarily driven by the northeast monsoon winds and enhanced by topographically induced shelf breaking and shear instability between the East African Coastal Current and the island chains. The Somali coast presents a strong case for the classical Ekman type of upwelling; such upwelling can be inhibited by the arrival of deeper thermocline signals generated in the offshore region by wind stress curl. Upwelling is nearly uniform along the coast of Arabia, caused by the alongshore component of the summer monsoon winds and modulated by the arrival of Rossby waves generated in the offshore region by cyclonic wind stress curl. Along the west coast of India, upwelling is driven by coastally trapped waves together with the alongshore component of the monsoon winds. Along the southern tip of India and Sri Lanka, the strong Ekman transport drives upwelling. Upwelling along the east coast of India is weak and occurs during summer, caused by alongshore winds. In addition, mesoscale eddies lead to upwelling, but the arrival of river water plumes inhibits upwelling along this coast. Southeasterly winds drive upwelling along the coast of Sumatra and Java during summer, with Kelvin wave propagation originating from the equatorial Indian Ocean affecting the magnitude and extent of the upwelling. Both El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events cause large variability in upwelling here. Along the west coast of Australia, which is characterized by the anomalous Leeuwin Current, southerly winds can cause sporadic upwelling, which is prominent along the southwest, central, and Gascoyne coasts during summer. Open-ocean upwelling in the southern tropical Indian Ocean and within the Sri Lanka Dome is driven primarily by the wind stress curl but is also impacted by Rossby wave propagations. Upwelling is a key driver enhancing biological productivity in all sectors of the coast, as indicated by enhanced sea surface chlorophyll concentrations. Additional knowledge at varying levels has been gained through in situ observations and model simulations. In the Mozambique Channel, upwelling simulates new production and circulation redistributes the production generated by upwelling and mesoscale eddies, leading to observations of higher ecosystem impacts along the edges of eddies. Similarly, along the southern Madagascar coast, biological connectivity is influenced by the transport of phytoplankton from upwelling zones. Along the coast of Kenya, both productivity rates and zooplankton biomass are higher during the upwelling season. Along the Somali coast, accumulation of upwelled nutrients in the northern part of the coast leads to spatial heterogeneity in productivity. In contrast, productivity is more uniform along the coasts of Yemen and Oman. Upwelling along the west coast of India has several biogeochemical implications, including oxygen depletion, denitrification, and high production of CH4 and dimethyl sulfide. Although weak, wind-driven upwelling leads to significant enhancement of phytoplankton in the northwest Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon. Along the Sumatra and Java coasts, upwelling affects the phytoplankton composition and assemblages. Dissimilarities in copepod assemblages occur during the upwelling periods along the west coast of Australia. Phytoplankton abundance characterizes inshore edges of the slope during upwelling season, and upwelling eddies are associated with krill abundance. The review identifies the northern coast of the Arabian Sea and eastern coasts of the Bay of Bengal as the least observed sectors. Additionally, sustained long-term observations with high temporal and spatial resolutions along with high-resolution modelling efforts are recommended for a deeper understanding of upwelling, its variability, and its impact on the ecosystem. 
    more » « less
  2. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 357 successfully cored an east–west transect across the southern wall of Atlantis Massif on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) to study the links between serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. The primary goals of this expedition were to (1) examine the role of serpentinization in driving hydrothermal systems, sustaining microbial communities, and sequestering carbon; (2) characterize the tectonomagmatic processes that lead to lithospheric heterogeneities and detachment faulting; and (3) assess how abiotic and biotic processes change with variations in rock type and progressive exposure on the seafloor. To accomplish these objectives, we developed a coring and sampling strategy centered on the use of seabed drills—the first time that such systems have been used in the scientific ocean drilling programs. This technology was chosen in the hope of achieving high recovery of the carbonate cap sequences and intact contact and deformation relationships. The expedition plans also included several engineering developments to assess geochemical parameters during drilling; sample bottom water before, during, and after drilling; supply synthetic tracers during drilling for contamination assessment; acquire in situ electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements for assessing fractures, fluid flow, and extent of serpentinization; and seal boreholes to provide opportunities for future experiments. Expedition 359 was designed to address changes in sea level and currents, along with monsoon evolution in the Indian Ocean. The Maldives archipelago holds a unique and mostly unread Indian Ocean archive of the evolving Cenozoic icehouse world. Cores from eight drill sites in the Inner Sea of the Maldives provide the tropical marine record that is key for better understanding the effects of this global evolution in the Indo-Pacific realm. In addition, the bank geometries of the carbonate archipelago provide a physical record of changing sea level and ocean currents. The bank growth occurs in pulses of aggradation and progradation that are controlled by sea level fluctuations during the early and middle Miocene, including the mid-Miocene Climate Optimum. A dramatic shift in development of the carbonate edifice from a sea level–controlled to a predominantly current-controlled system appears to be directly linked to the evolving Indian monsoon. This phase led to a twofold configuration of bank development: bank growth continued in some parts of the edifice, whereas in other places, banks drowned. Drowning steps seem to coincide with onset and intensification of the monsoon-related current system and subsequent deposition of contourite fans and large-scale sediment drifts. As such, the drift deposits will provide a continuous record of Indian monsoon development in the region of the Maldives. A major focus of Expedition 359 was to date precisely the onset of the current system. This goal was successfully completed during the expedition. The second important outcome of Expedition 359 was groundtruthing the hypothesis that the dramatic, pronounced change in style of the carbonate platform sequence stacking was caused by a combination of relative sea level fluctuations and ocean current system changes. These questions are directly addressed by the shipboard scientific data. In addition, Expedition 359 cores will provide a complete Neogene δ13C record of the platform and platform margin sediments and a comparison with pelagic records over the same time period. This comparison will allow assessment of the extent to which platform carbonates record changes in the global carbon cycle and whether changes in the carbon isotopic composition of organic and inorganic components covary and the implications this has on the deep-time record. This determination is important because such records are the only type that exists in deep time. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The Indian monsoon is of utmost concern to agriculture, the economy, and the livelihoods of billions in South Asia. However, little attention has been paid to the possibility of distinct subseasonal episodes phase-locked in the Indian monsoon annual cycle. This study addresses this gap by utilizing the self-organizing map (SOM) method to objectively classify six distinct subseasonal stages based on the 850-hPa wind fields. Each subseasonal stage ranges from 23 to 90 days. The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) consists of three substages, the ISM-onset, ISM-peak, and ISM-withdrawal, altogether contributing to 82% of the annual precipitation. The three substages signify the rapid northward advance, dominance, and gradual southward retreat of southwesterlies from mid-May to early October. The winter monsoon also comprises three substages (fall, winter, and spring), distinguishable by the latitude of the Arabian Sea high pressure ridge and hydrological conditions. This study proposes two compact indices based on zonal winds in the northern and southern Arabian Sea to measure the winter and summer monsoons, respectively. These indices capture the development and turnabouts of the six SOM-derived stages and can be used for subseasonal monsoon monitoring and forecasts. The spring and the ISM-onset episodes are highly susceptible to compound hazards of droughts and heatwaves, while the greatest flood risk occurs during the ISM-peak stage. The fall stage heralds the peak season for tropical storms over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The annual start and end dates of the ISM-peak are highly correlated (0.6–0.8) with the criteria-based dates proposed previously, supporting the delineation of the Indian monsoon subseasonal features.

    Significance Statement

    This research explores the existence of subseasonal features in the Indian monsoon annual cycle. Through the use of machine learning, we discover that the Indian summer monsoon and winter monsoon each consist of three substages. These substages’ evolution can be measured by two compact indices proposed herein, which can aid in subseasonal monsoon monitoring and forecasts in South Asia. Pertaining to hazard adaptations, this work pinpoints the subseasonal episodes most susceptible to droughts, heatwaves, floods, and tropical storms. High correlations are obtained when validating the substages’ yearly start and end dates against those documented in the existing literature, offering credibility to the subseasonal features of the Indian monsoon.

     
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Heavy monsoon rainfall ravaged a large swath of East Asia in summer 2020. Severe flooding of the Yangtze River displaced millions of residents in the midst of a historic public health crisis. This extreme rainy season was not anticipated from El Niño conditions. Using observations and model experiments, we show that the record strong Indian Ocean Dipole event in 2019 is an important contributor to the extreme Yangtze flooding of 2020. This Indian Ocean mode and a weak El Niño in the Pacific excite downwelling oceanic Rossby waves that propagate slowly westward south of the equator. At a mooring in the Southwest Indian Ocean, the thermocline deepens by a record 70 m in late 2019. The deepened thermocline helps sustain the Indian Ocean warming through the 2020 summer. The Indian Ocean warming forces an anomalous anticyclone in the lower troposphere over the Indo-Northwest Pacific region and intensifies the upper-level westerly jet over East Asia, leading to heavy summer rainfall in the Yangtze Basin. These coupled ocean-atmosphere processes beyond the equatorial Pacific provide predictability. Indeed, dynamic models initialized with observed ocean state predicted the heavy summer rainfall in the Yangtze Basin as early as April 2020. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract. Assessing impacts of climate change on hydrologic systemsis critical for developing adaptation and mitigation strategies for waterresource management, risk control, and ecosystem conservation practices. Suchassessments are commonly accomplished using outputs from a hydrologic modelforced with future precipitation and temperature projections. The algorithmsused for the hydrologic model components (e.g., runoff generation) canintroduce significant uncertainties into the simulated hydrologic variables.Here, a modeling framework was developed that integrates multiple runoffgeneration algorithms with a routing model and associated parameteroptimizations. This framework is able to identify uncertainties from bothhydrologic model components and climate forcings as well as associatedparameterization. Three fundamentally different runoff generationapproaches, runoff coefficient method (RCM, conceptual), variableinfiltration capacity (VIC, physically based, infiltration excess), andsimple-TOPMODEL (STP, physically based, saturation excess), were coupledwith the Hillslope River Routing model to simulate surface/subsurface runoffand streamflow. A case study conducted in Santa Barbara County, California,reveals increased surface runoff in February and March but decreasedrunoff in other months, a delayed (3 d, median) and shortened (6 d,median) wet season, and increased daily discharge especially for theextremes (e.g., 100-year flood discharge, Q100). The Bayesian modelaveraging analysis indicates that the probability of such an increase can be up to85 %. For projected changes in runoff and discharge, general circulationmodels (GCMs) and emission scenarios are two major uncertainty sources,accounting for about half of the total uncertainty. For the changes inseasonality, GCMs and hydrologic models are two major uncertaintycontributors (∼35 %). In contrast, the contribution ofhydrologic model parameters to the total uncertainty of changes in thesehydrologic variables is relatively small (<6 %), limiting theimpacts of hydrologic model parameter equifinality in climate change impactanalysis. This study provides useful information for practices associatedwith water resources, risk control, and ecosystem conservation and forstudies related to hydrologic model evaluation and climate change impactanalysis for the study region as well as other Mediterranean regions. 
    more » « less