skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on July 25, 2024

Title: Electronic structure contributions to O–O bond cleavage reactions for Mn III -alkylperoxo complexes
Synthetic manganese catalysts that activate hydrogen peroxide perform a variety of hydrocarbon oxidation reactions. The most commonly proposed mechanism for these catalysts involves the generation of a manganese(iii)-hydroperoxo intermediate that decays via heterolytic O–O bond cleavage to generate a Mn( v)-oxo species that initiates substrate oxidation. Due to the paucity of well-defined Mn(III)-hydroperoxo complexes, Mn(III)-alkylperoxo complexes are often employed to understand the factors that affect the O–O cleavage reaction. Herein, we examine the decay pathways of the Mn(III)-alkylperoxo complexes [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(6Me dpaq)]+ and [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(N4S)]+, which have distinct coordination environments (N5− and N4S− , respectively). Through the use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and comparisons with published experimental data, we are able to rationalize the differences in the decay pathways of these complexes. For the [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(N4S)]+ system, O–O homolysis proceeds via a two-state mechanism that involves a crossing from the quintet reactant to a triplet state. A high energy singlet state discourages O–O heterolysis for this complex. In contrast, while quintet–triplet crossing is unfavorable for [Mn(III)(OOtBu)(6Medpaq)]+, a relatively low-energy single state accounts for the observation of both O–O homolysis and heterolysis products for this complex. The origins of these differences in decay pathways are linked to variations in the electronic structures of the Mn(III)-alkylperoxo complexes.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2154955 2117449
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Dalton Transactions
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    While alkylperoxomanganese(iii) (MnIII–OOR) intermediates are proposed in the catalytic cycles of several manganese-dependent enzymes, their characterization has proven to be a challenge due to their inherent thermal instability. Fundamental understanding of the structural and electronic properties of these important intermediates is limited to a series of complexes with thiolate-containing N4S− ligands. These well-characterized complexes are metastable yet unreactive in the direct oxidation of organic substrates. Because the stability and reactivity of MnIII –OOR complexes are likely to be highly dependent on their local coordination environment, we have generated two new MnIII–OOR complexes using a new amide-containing N5− ligand. Using the 2-(bis((6-methylpyridin-2-yl)methyl)amino)- N-(quinolin-8-yl)acetamide (H6Medpaq) ligand, we generated the [MnIII(OO)tBu)(6Medpaq)]OTf and [MnIII(OOCm)(6Medpaq)]OTf complexes through reaction of their MnII or MnIII precursors with t BuOOH and CmOOH, respectively. Both of the new Mn III–OOR complexes are stable at room-temperature (t1/2 = 5 and 8 days, respectively, at 298 K in CH3CN) and capable of reacting directly with phosphine substrates. The stability of these MnIII–OOR adducts render them amenable for detailed characterization, including by X-ray crystallography for [MnIII (OOCm)(6Medpaq)]OTf. Thermal decomposition studies support a decay pathway of the MnIII–OOR complexes by O–O bond homolysis. In contrast, direct reaction of [MnIII(OOCm)(6Medpaq)] + with PPh3 provided evidence of heterolytic cleavage of the O–O bond. These studies reveal that both the stability and chemical reactivity of MnIII–OOR complexes can be tuned by the local coordination sphere. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    The addition of tert -butyl hydroperoxide ( t BuOOH) to two structurally related Mn II complexes containing N,N -bis(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (6-Me-DPEN) and N,N -bis(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)propane-1,2-diamine (6-Me-DPPN) results in the formation of high-valent bis-oxo complexes, namely di-μ-oxido-bis{[ N , N -bis(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine]manganese(II)}( Mn — Mn ) bis(tetraphenylborate) dihydrate, [Mn(C 16 H 22 N 4 ) 2 O 2 ](C 24 H 20 B) 2 ·2H 2 O or {[Mn IV (N 4 (6-Me-DPEN))] 2 ( μ -O) 2 }(2BPh 4 )(2H 2 O) ( 1 ) and di-μ-oxido-bis{[ N , N -bis(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)propane-1,3-diamine]manganese(II)}( Mn — Mn ) bis(tetraphenylborate) diethyl ether disolvate, [Mn(C 17 H 24 N 4 ) 2 O 2 ](C 24 H 20 B) 2 ·2C 4 H 10 O or {[Mn IV (N 4 (6-MeDPPN))] 2 ( μ -O) 2 }(2BPh 4 )(2Et 2 O) ( 2 ). Complexes 1 and 2 both contain the `diamond core' motif found previously in a number of iron, copper, and manganese high-valent bis-oxo compounds. The flexibility in the propyl linker in the ligand scaffold of 2 , as compared to that of the ethyl linker in 1 , results in more elongated Mn—N bonds, as one would expect. The Mn—Mn distances and Mn—O bond lengths support an Mn IV oxidation state assignment for the Mn ions in both 1 and 2 . The angles around the Mn centers are consistent with the local pseudo-octahedral geometry. 
    more » « less
  3. The enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase and manganese lipoxygenase use Mn III –hydroxo centres to mediate proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions with substrate. As manganese is earth-abundant and inexpensive, manganese catalysts are of interest for synthetic applications. Recent years have seen exciting reports of enantioselective C–H bond oxidation by Mn catalysts supported by aminopyridyl ligands. Such catalysts offer economic and environmentally-friendly alternatives to conventional reagents and catalysts. Mechanistic studies of synthetic catalysts highlight the role of Mn–oxo motifs in attacking substrate C–H bonds, presumably by a concerted proton–electron transfer (CPET) step. (CPET is a sub-class of PCET, where the proton and electron are transferred in the same step.) Knowledge of geometric and electronic influences for CPET reactions of Mn–hydroxo and Mn–oxo adducts enhances our understanding of biological and synthetic manganese centers and informs the design of new catalysts. In this Feature article, we describe kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational studies of Mn III –hydroxo and Mn IV –oxo complexes that provide insight into the basis for the CPET reactivity of these species. Systematic perturbations of the ligand environment around Mn III –hydroxo and Mn IV –oxo motifs permit elucidation of structure–activity relationships. For Mn III –hydroxo centers, electron-deficient ligands enhance oxidative reactivity. However, ligand perturbations have competing consequences, as changes in the Mn III/II potential, which represents the electron-transfer component for CPET, is offset by compensating changes in the p K a of the Mn II –aqua product, which represents the proton-transfer component for CPET. For Mn IV –oxo systems, a multi-state reactivity model inspired the development of significantly more reactive complexes. Weakened equatorial donation to the Mn IV –oxo unit results in large rate enhancements for C–H bond oxidation and oxygen-atom transfer reactions. These results demonstrate that the local coordination environment can be rationally changed to enhance reactivity of Mn III –hydroxo and Mn IV –oxo adducts. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Reactivity assays previously suggested that two quinol-containing MRI contrast agent sensors for H 2 O 2 , [Mn( H2qp1 )(MeCN)] 2+ and [Mn( H4qp2 )Br 2 ], could also catalytically degrade superoxide. Subsequently, [Zn( H2qp1 )(OTf)] + was found to use the redox activity of the H2qp1 ligand to catalyze the conversion of O 2 ˙ − to O 2 and H 2 O 2 , raising the possibility that the organic ligand, rather than the metal, could serve as the redox partner for O 2 ˙ − in the manganese chemistry. Here, we use stopped-flow kinetics and cryospray-ionization mass spectrometry (CSI-MS) analysis of the direct reactions between the manganese-containing contrast agents and O 2 ˙ − to confirm the activity and elucidate the catalytic mechanism. The obtained data are consistent with the operation of multiple parallel catalytic cycles, with both the quinol groups and manganese cycling through different oxidation states during the reactions with superoxide. The choice of ligand impacts the overall charges of the intermediates and allows us to visualize complementary sets of intermediates within the catalytic cycles using CSI-MS. With the diquinolic H4qp2 , we detect Mn( iii )-superoxo intermediates with both reduced and oxidized forms of the ligand, a Mn( iii )-hydroperoxo compound, and what is formally a Mn( iv )-oxo species with the monoquinolate/mono- para -quinone form of H4qp2 . With the monoquinolic H2qp1 , we observe a Mn( ii )-superoxo ↔ Mn( iii )-peroxo intermediate with the oxidized para -quinone form of the ligand. The observation of these species suggests inner-sphere mechanisms for O 2 ˙ − oxidation and reduction that include both the ligand and manganese as redox partners. The higher positive charges of the complexes with the reduced and oxidized forms of H2qp1 compared to those with related forms of H4qp2 result in higher catalytic activity ( k cat ∼ 10 8 M −1 s −1 at pH 7.4) that rivals those of the most active superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics. The manganese complex with H2qp1 is markedly more stable in water than other highly active non-porphyrin-based and even some Mn( ii ) porphyrin-based SOD mimics. 
    more » « less
  5. There is considerable interest in MnOH x moieties, particularly in the stepwise changes in those O–H bonds in tandem with Mn oxidation state changes. The reactivity of aquo-derived ligands, {MOH x }, is also heavily influenced by the electronic character of the other ligands. Despite the prevalence of oxygen coordination in biological systems, preparation of mononuclear Mn complexes of this type with all O-donors is rare. Herein, we report several Mn complexes with perfluoropinacolate (pin F ) 2− including the first example of a crystallographically characterized mononuclear {Mn( iii )OH} with all O-donors, K 2 [Mn(OH)(pin F ) 2 ], 3. Complex 3 is prepared via deprotonation of K[Mn(OH 2 )(pin F ) 2 ], 1, the p K a of which is estimated to be 18.3 ± 0.3. Cyclic voltammetry reveals quasi-reversible redox behavior for both 1 and 3 with an unusually large Δ E p , assigned to the Mn( iii / ii ) couple. Using the Bordwell method, the bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of the O–H bond in {Mn( ii )–OH 2 } is estimated to be 67–70 kcal mol −1 . Complex 3 abstracts H-atoms from 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, 2,4,6-TTBP, and TEMPOH, the latter of which supports a PCET mechanism. Under basic conditions in air, the synthesis of 1 results in K 2 [Mn(OAc)(pin F ) 2 ], 2, proposed to result from the oxidation of Et 2 O to EtOAc by a reactive Mn species, followed by ester hydrolysis. Complex 3 alone does not react with Et 2 O, but addition of O 2 at low temperature effects the formation of a new chromophore proposed to be a Mn( iv ) species. The related complexes K(18C6)[Mn( iii )(pin F ) 2 ], 4, and (Me 4 N) 2 [Mn( ii )(pin F ) 2 ], 5, have also been prepared and their properties discussed in relation to complexes 1–3. 
    more » « less