In order to accurately accumulate delivered dose for head and neck cancer patients treated with the Adapt to Position workflow on the 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)‐linear accelerator (MR‐linac), the low‐resolution T2‐weighted MRIs used for daily setup must be segmented to enable reconstruction of the delivered dose at each fraction.
In this pilot study, we evaluate various autosegmentation methods for head and neck organs at risk (OARs) on on‐board setup MRIs from the MR‐linac for off‐line reconstruction of delivered dose.
Seven OARs (parotid glands, submandibular glands, mandible, spinal cord, and brainstem) were contoured on 43 images by seven observers each. Ground truth contours were generated using a simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. Twenty total autosegmentation methods were evaluated in ADMIRE: 1–9) atlas‐based autosegmentation using a population atlas library (PAL) of 5/10/15 patients with STAPLE, patch fusion (PF), random forest (RF) for label fusion; 10–19) autosegmentation using images from a patient's 1–4 prior fractions (individualized patient prior [IPP]) using STAPLE/PF/RF; 20) deep learning (DL) (3D ResUNet trained on 43 ground truth structure sets plus 45 contoured by one observer). Execution time was measured for each method. Autosegmented structures were compared to ground truth structures using the Dice similarity coefficient, mean surface distance (MSD), Hausdorff distance (HD), and Jaccard index (JI). For each metric and OAR, performance was compared to the inter‐observer variability using Dunn's test with control. Methods were compared pairwise using the Steel‐Dwass test for each metric pooled across all OARs. Further dosimetric analysis was performed on three high‐performing autosegmentation methods (DL, IPP with RF and 4 fractions [IPP_RF_4], IPP with 1 fraction [IPP_1]), and one low‐performing (PAL with STAPLE and 5 atlases [PAL_ST_5]). For five patients, delivered doses from clinical plans were recalculated on setup images with ground truth and autosegmented structure sets. Differences in maximum and mean dose to each structure between the ground truth and autosegmented structures were calculated and correlated with geometric metrics.
DL and IPP methods performed best overall, all significantly outperforming inter‐observer variability and with no significant difference between methods in pairwise comparison. PAL methods performed worst overall; most were not significantly different from the inter‐observer variability or from each other. DL was the fastest method (33 s per case) and PAL methods the slowest (3.7–13.8 min per case). Execution time increased with a number of prior fractions/atlases for IPP and PAL. For DL, IPP_1, and IPP_RF_4, the majority (95%) of dose differences were within ± 250 cGy from ground truth, but outlier differences up to 785 cGy occurred. Dose differences were much higher for PAL_ST_5, with outlier differences up to 1920 cGy. Dose differences showed weak but significant correlations with all geometric metrics (
The autosegmentation methods offering the best combination of performance and execution time are DL and IPP_1. Dose reconstruction on on‐board T2‐weighted MRIs is feasible with autosegmented structures with minimal dosimetric variation from ground truth, but contours should be visually inspected prior to dose reconstruction in an end‐to‐end dose accumulation workflow.
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Medical Physics
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Abstract Objective . Deep-learning (DL)-based dose engines have been developed to alleviate the intrinsic compromise between the calculation accuracy and efficiency of the traditional dose calculation algorithms. However, current DL-based engines typically possess high computational complexity and require powerful computing devices. Therefore, to mitigate their computational burdens and broaden their applicability to a clinical setting where resource-limited devices are available, we proposed a compact dose engine via knowledge distillation (KD) framework that offers an ultra-fast calculation speed with high accuracy for prostate Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). Approach . The KD framework contains two sub-models: a large pre-trained teacher and a small to-be-trained student. The student receives knowledge transferred from the teacher for better generalization. The trained student serves as the final engine for dose calculation. The model input is patient computed tomography and VMAT dose in water, and the output is DL-calculated patient dose. The ground-truth \dose was computed by the Monte Carlo module of the Monaco treatment planning system. Twenty and ten prostate cases were included for model training and assessment, respectively. The model’s performance (teacher/student/student-only) was evaluated by Gamma analysis and inference efficiency. Main results . The dosimetric comparisons (input/DL-calculated/ground-truth doses) suggest that the proposed engine can effectively convert low-accuracy doses in water to high-accuracy patient doses. The Gamma passing rate (2%/2 mm, 10% threshold) between the DL-calculated and ground-truth doses was 98.64 ± 0.62% (teacher), 98.13 ± 0.76% (student), and 96.95 ± 1.02% (student-only). The inference time was 16 milliseconds (teacher) and 11 milliseconds (student/student-only) using a graphics processing unit device, while it was 936 milliseconds (teacher) and 374 milliseconds (student/student-only) using a central processing unit device. Significance . With the KD framework, a compact dose engine can achieve comparable accuracy to that of a larger one. Its compact size reduces the computational burdens and computing device requirements, and thus such an engine can be more clinically applicable.more » « less
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Spatiotemporal fractionation schemes represent an approach to lower the biological dose to the healthy brain in SRS‐based treatments of multiple BMs. Although cSTF cannot achieve the full BED reduction of STF, it improves on uniform fractionation and is more robust against both setup errors and biological uncertainties related to partial tumor irradiation.
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Methods and Materials
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