skip to main content


Title: Reversing the Enantioselectivity of Enzymatic Carbene N−H Insertion Through Mechanism‐Guided Protein Engineering**
Abstract

We report a computationally driven approach to access enantiodivergent enzymatic carbene N−H insertions catalyzed by P411 enzymes. Computational modeling was employed to rationally guide engineering efforts to control the accessible conformations of a key lactone‐carbene (LAC) intermediate in the enzyme active site by installing a new H‐bond anchoring point. This H‐bonding interaction controls the relative orientation of the reactive carbene intermediate, orienting it for an enantioselectiveN‐nucleophilic attack by the amine substrate. By combining MD simulations and site‐saturation mutagenesis and screening targeted to only two key residues, we were able to reverse the stereoselectivity of previously engineeredS‐selective P411 enzymes. The resulting variant,L5_FL‐B3, accepts a broad scope of amine substrates for N−H insertion with excellent yields (up to >99 %), high efficiency (up to 12 300 TTN), and good enantiocontrol (up to 7 : 93er).

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10442007
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Angewandte Chemie
Volume:
135
Issue:
35
ISSN:
0044-8249
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We report a computationally driven approach to access enantiodivergent enzymatic carbene N−H insertions catalyzed by P411 enzymes. Computational modeling was employed to rationally guide engineering efforts to control the accessible conformations of a key lactone‐carbene (LAC) intermediate in the enzyme active site by installing a new H‐bond anchoring point. This H‐bonding interaction controls the relative orientation of the reactive carbene intermediate, orienting it for an enantioselectiveN‐nucleophilic attack by the amine substrate. By combining MD simulations and site‐saturation mutagenesis and screening targeted to only two key residues, we were able to reverse the stereoselectivity of previously engineeredS‐selective P411 enzymes. The resulting variant,L5_FL‐B3, accepts a broad scope of amine substrates for N−H insertion with excellent yields (up to >99 %), high efficiency (up to 12 300 TTN), and good enantiocontrol (up to 7 : 93er).

     
    more » « less
  2. Lactones are cyclic esters with extensive applications in materials science, medicinal chemistry, and the food and perfume industries. Nature’s strategy for the synthesis of many lactones found in natural products always relies on a single type of retrosynthetic strategy, a C−O bond disconnection. Here, we describe a set of laboratory-engineered enzymes that use a new-tonature C−C bond-forming strategy to assemble diverse lactone structures. These engineered “carbene transferases” catalyze intramolecular carbene insertions into benzylic or allylic C−H bonds, which allow for the synthesis of lactones with different ring sizes and ring scaffolds from simple starting materials. Starting from a serine-ligated cytochrome P450 variant previously engineered for other carbene-transfer activities, directed evolution generated a variant P411-LAS-5247, which exhibits a high activity for constructing a five-membered ε-lactone, lactam, and cyclic ketone products (up to 5600 total turnovers (TTN) and >99% enantiomeric excess (ee)). Further engineering led to variants P411-LAS-5249 and P411-LAS-5264, which deliver six-membered δ-lactones and seven-membered ε-lactones, respectively, overcoming the thermodynamically unfavorable ring strain associated with these products compared to the γ-lactones. This new carbene-transfer activity was further extended to the synthesis of complex lactone scaffolds based on fused, bridged, and spiro rings. The enzymatic platform developed here complements natural biosynthetic strategies for lactone assembly and expands the structural diversity of lactones accessible through C−H functionalization. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    A series of molecular Mn catalysts featuring aniline groups in the second‐coordination sphere has been developed for electrochemical and photochemical CO2reduction. The arylamine moieties were installed at the 6 position of 2,2’‐bipyridine (bpy) to generate a family of isomers in which the primary amine is located at theortho‐(1‐Mn),meta‐(2‐Mn), orpara‐site (3‐Mn) of the aniline ring. The proximity of the second‐sphere functionality to the active site is a critical factor in determining catalytic performance. Catalyst1‐Mn, possessing the shortest distance between the amine and the active site, significantly outperformed the rest of the series and exhibited a 9‐fold improvement in turnover frequency relative to parent catalyst Mn(bpy)(CO)3Br (901 vs. 102 s−1, respectively) at 150 mV lower overpotential. The electrocatalysts operated with high faradaic efficiencies (≥70 %) for CO evolution using trifluoroethanol as a proton source. Notably, under photocatalytic conditions, a concentration‐dependent shift in product selectivity from CO (at high [catalyst]) to HCO2H (at low [catalyst]) was observed with turnover numbers up to 4760 for formic acid and high selectivities for reduced carbon products.

     
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Chiral amines can be made by insertion of a carbene into an N–H bond using two-catalyst systems that combine a transition metal-based carbene-transfer catalyst and a chiral proton-transfer catalyst to enforce stereocontrol. Haem proteins can effect carbene N–H insertion, but asymmetric protonation in an active site replete with proton sources is challenging. Here we describe engineered cytochrome P450 enzymes that catalyse carbene N–H insertion to prepare biologically relevant α-amino lactones with high activity and enantioselectivity (up to 32,100 total turnovers, >99% yield and 98% e.e.). These enzymes serve as dual-function catalysts, inducing carbene transfer and promoting the subsequent proton transfer with excellent stereoselectivity in a single active site. Computational studies uncover the detailed mechanism of this new-to-nature enzymatic reaction and explain how active-site residues accelerate this transformation and provide stereocontrol. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    An increased understanding of how the acceptor site in Gcn5‐relatedN‐acetyltransferase (GNAT) enzymes recognizes various substrates provides important clues for GNAT functional annotation and their use as chemical tools. In this study, we explored how the PA3944 enzyme fromPseudomonas aeruginosarecognizes three different acceptor substrates, including aspartame, NANMO, and polymyxin B, and identified acceptor residues that are critical for substrate specificity. To achieve this, we performed a series of molecular docking simulations and tested methods to identify acceptor substrate binding modes that are catalytically relevant. We found that traditional selection of best docking poses by lowest S scores did not reveal acceptor substrate binding modes that were generally close enough to the donor for productive acetylation. Instead, sorting poses based on distance between the acceptor amine nitrogen atom and donor carbonyl carbon atom placed these acceptor substrates near residues that contribute to substrate specificity and catalysis. To assess whether these residues are indeed contributors to substrate specificity, we mutated seven amino acid residues to alanine and determined their kinetic parameters. We identified several residues that improved the apparent affinity and catalytic efficiency of PA3944, especially for NANMO and/or polymyxin B. Additionally, one mutant (R106A) exhibited substrate inhibition toward NANMO, and we propose scenarios for the cause of this inhibition based on additional substrate docking studies with R106A. Ultimately, we propose that this residue is a key gatekeeper between the acceptor and donor sites by restricting and orienting the acceptor substrate within the acceptor site.

     
    more » « less