skip to main content


Title: Enantioselective Fluorescent Recognition of β‐Amino Alcohols by Stereoselective Cyclization
Abstract

2,2’‐Diformyl‐1,1’‐binaphthyl is found to exhibit highly enantioselective fluorescence enhancement in the presence of various β‐amino alcohols and base. It provides a new method to determine the enantiomeric composition of those substrates and has potential for high throughput analysis. Based on detailed spectroscopic analyses, it is proposed that a stereoselective cyclization of a β‐amino alcohol with the probe should occur to form a rigid macrocyclic intermediate, contributing to the greatly enhanced fluorescence.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1855443
NSF-PAR ID:
10445119
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Volume:
2022
Issue:
20
ISSN:
1434-193X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Screening amino acid sequence space via experiments to discover peptides that self-assemble into amyloid fibrils is challenging. We have developed a computational peptide assembly design (PepAD) algorithm that enables the discovery of amyloid-forming peptides. Discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD) simulation with the PRIME20 force field combined with the FoldAmyloid tool is used to examine the fibrilization kinetics of PepAD-generated peptides. PepAD screening of ∼10,000 7-mer peptides resulted in twelve top-scoring peptides with two distinct hydration properties. Our studies revealed that eight of the twelve in silico discovered peptides spontaneously form amyloid fibrils in the DMD simulations and that all eight have at least five residues that the FoldAmyloid tool classifies as being aggregation-prone. Based on these observations, we re-examined the PepAD-generated peptides in the sequence pool returned by PepAD and extracted five sequence patterns as well as associated sequence signatures for the 7-mer amyloid-forming peptides. Experimental results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that all the peptides predicted to assemble in silico assemble into antiparallel β-sheet nanofibers in a concentration-dependent manner. This is the first attempt to use a computational approach to search for amyloid-forming peptides based on customized settings. Our efforts facilitate the identification of β-sheet-based self-assembling peptides, and contribute insights towards answering a fundamental scientific question: “What does it take, sequence-wise, for a peptide to self-assemble?”

     
    more » « less
  2. The Pacific Ocean constitutes about half of the global oceans and thus microbial processes in this ocean have a large impact on global elemental cycles. Despite several intensely studied regions large areas are still greatly understudied regarding microbial activities, organic matter cycling and biogeography. Refined information about these features is most important to better understand the significance of this ocean for global biogeochemical and elemental cycles. Therefore we investigated a suite of microbial and geochemical variables along a transect from the subantarctic to the subarctic Pacific in the upper 200 m of the water column. The aim was to quantify rates of organic matter processing, identify potential controlling factors and prokaryotic key players. The assessed variables included abundance of heterotrophic prokaryotes and cyanobacteria, heterotrophic prokaryotic production (HPP), turnover rate constants of amino acids, glucose, and acetate, leucine aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase activities, and the composition of the bacterial community by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The additional quantification of nitrate, dissolved amino acids and carbohydrates, chlorophyll a , particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON) provided a rich environmental context. The oligotrophic gyres exhibited the lowest prokaryotic abundances, rates of HPP and substrate turnover. Low nucleic acid prokaryotes dominated in these gyres, whereas in temperate and subpolar regions further north and south, high nucleic acid prokaryotes dominated. Turnover rate constants of glucose and acetate, as well as leucine aminopeptidase activity, increased from (sub)tropical toward the subpolar regions. In contrast, HPP and bulk growth rates were highest near the equatorial upwelling and lowest in the central gyres and subpolar regions. The SAR11 clade, the Roseobacter group and Flavobacteria constituted the majority of the prokaryotic communities. Vertical profiles of the biogeochemical and microbial variables markedly differed among the different regions and showed close covariations of the microbial variables and chlorophyll a , POC and PON. The results show that hydrographic, microbial, and biogeochemical properties exhibited distinct patterns reflecting the biogeographic provinces along the transect. The microbial variables assessed contribute to a better and refined understanding of the scales of microbial organic matter processing in large areas of the epipelagic Pacific beyond its well-studied regions. 
    more » « less
  3. In this study, we used optical spectroscopy to characterize the physical properties of microvesicles released from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (Sa-MVs). The most abundant proteins in Sa-MVs are the S-layer proteins, which self-assemble on the vesicle surface forming an array of crystalline structures. Lipids in Sa-MVs are exclusively bipolar tetraethers. We found that when excited at 275 nm, intrinsic protein fluorescence of Sa-MVs at 23 °C has an emission maximum at 303 nm (or 296 nm measured at 75 °C), which is unusually low for protein samples containing multiple tryptophans and tyrosines. In the presence of 10–11 mM of the surfactant n-tetradecyl-β-d-maltoside (TDM), Sa-MVs were disintegrated, the emission maximum of intrinsic protein fluorescence was shifted to 312 nm, and the excitation maximum was changed from 288 nm to 280.5 nm, in conjunction with a significant decrease (>2 times) in excitation band sharpness. These data suggest that most of the fluorescent amino acid residues in native Sa-MVs are in a tightly packed protein matrix and that the S-layer proteins may form J-aggregates. The membranes in Sa-MVs, as well as those of unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) made of the polar lipid fraction E (PLFE) tetraether lipids isolated from S. acidocaldarius (LUVPLFE), LUVs reconstituted from the tetraether lipids extracted from Sa-MVs (LUVMV) and LUVs made of the diester lipids, were investigated using the probe 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (Laurdan). The generalized polarization (GP) values of Laurdan in tightly packed Sa-MVs, LUVMV, and LUVPLFE were found to be much lower than those obtained from less tightly packed DPPC gel state, which echoes the previous finding that the GP values from tetraether lipid membranes cannot be directly compared with the GP values from diester lipid membranes, due to differences in probe disposition. Laurdan’s GP and red-edge excitation shift (REES) values in Sa-MVs and LUVMV decrease with increasing temperature monotonically with no sign for lipid phase transition. Laurdan’s REES values are high (9.3–18.9 nm) in the tetraether lipid membrane systems (i.e., Sa-MVs, LUVMV and LUVPLFE) and low (0.4–5.0 nm) in diester liposomes. The high REES and low GP values suggest that Laurdan in tetraether lipid membranes, especially in the membrane of Sa-MVs, is in a very motionally restricted environment, bound water molecules and the polar moieties in the tetraether lipid headgroups strongly interact with Laurdan’s excited state dipole moment, and “solvent” reorientation around Laurdan’s chromophore in tetraether lipid membranes occurs very slowly compared to Laurdan’s lifetime. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Enzymes from secondary metabolic pathways possess broad potential for the selective synthesis of complex bioactive molecules. However, the practical application of these enzymes for organic synthesis is dependent on the development of efficient, economical, operationally simple, and well‐characterized systems for preparative scale reactions. We sought to bridge this knowledge gap for the selective biocatalytic synthesis of β‐hydroxy‐α‐amino acids, which are important synthetic building blocks. To achieve this goal, we demonstrated the ability of ObiH, anl‐threonine transaldolase, to achieve selective milligram‐scale synthesis of a diverse array of non‐standard amino acids (nsAAs) using a scalable whole cell platform. We show how the initial selectivity of the catalyst is high and how the diastereomeric ratio of products decreases at high conversion due to product re‐entry into the catalytic cycle. ObiH‐catalyzed reactions with a variety of aromatic, aliphatic and heterocyclic aldehydes selectively generated a panel of β‐hydroxy‐α‐amino acids possessing broad functional‐group diversity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ObiH‐generated β‐hydroxy‐α‐amino acids could be modified through additional transformations to access important motifs, such as β‐chloro‐α‐amino acids and substituted α‐keto acids.

     
    more » « less
  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae express three isoforms of Snf1 kinase that differ by which β subunit is present, Gal83, Sip1 or Sip2. Here we investigate the abundance, activation, localization and signaling specificity of the three Snf1 isoforms. The relative abundance of these isoforms was assessed by quantitative immunoblotting using two different protein extraction methods and by fluorescence microscopy. The Gal83 containing isoform is the most abundant in all assays while the abundance of the Sip1 and Sip2 isoforms is typically underestimated especially in glass-bead extractions. Earlier studies to assess Snf1 isoform function utilized gene deletions as a means to inactivate specific isoforms. Here we use point mutations in Gal83 and Sip2 and a 17 amino acid C-terminal truncation of Sip1 to inactivate specific isoforms without affecting their abundance or association with the other subunits. The effect of low glucose and alkaline stresses was examined for two Snf1 phosphorylation substrates, the Mig1 and Mig2 proteins. Any of the three isoforms was capable of phosphorylating Mig1 in response to glucose stress. In contrast, the Gal83 isoform of Snf1 was both necessary and sufficient for the phosphorylation of the Mig2 protein in response to alkaline stress. Alkaline stress led to the activation of all three isoforms yet only the Gal83 isoform translocates to the nucleus and phosphorylates Mig2. Deletion of the SAK1 gene blocked nuclear translocation of Gal83 and signaling to Mig2. These data strongly support the idea that Snf1 signaling specificity is mediated by localization of the different Snf1 isoforms. 
    more » « less