- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Nature Publishing Group
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Nature Cell Biology
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 1359-1368
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulates stability and translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) in various biological processes. In this work, we show that knockout of the m6A writer Mettl3or the nuclear reader Ythdc1in mouse embryonic stem cells increases chromatin accessibility and activates transcription in an m6A-dependent manner. We found that METTL3 deposits m6A modifications on chromosome-associated regulatory RNAs (carRNAs), including promoter-associated RNAs, enhancer RNAs, and repeat RNAs. YTHDC1 facilitates the decay of a subset of these m6A-modified RNAs, especially elements of the long interspersed element-1 family, through the nuclear exosome targeting–mediated nuclear degradation. Reducing m6A methylation by METTL3 depletion or site-specific m6A demethylation of selected carRNAs elevates the levels of carRNAs and promotes open chromatin state and downstream transcription. Collectively, our results reveal that m6A on carRNAs can globally tune chromatin state and transcription.
Folate is an essential B-group vitamin and a key methyl donor with important biological functions including DNA methylation regulation. Normal neurodevelopment and physiology are sensitive to the cellular folate levels. Either deficiency or excess of folate may lead to neurological disorders. Recently, folate has been linked to tRNA cytosine-5 methylation (m5C) and translation in mammalian mitochondria. However, the influence of folate intake on neuronal mRNA m5C modification and translation remains largely unknown. Here, we provide transcriptome-wide landscapes of m5C modification in poly(A)-enriched RNAs together with mRNA transcription and translation profiles for mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) cultured in three different concentrations of folate.
NSCs cultured in three different concentrations of folate showed distinct mRNA methylation profiles. Despite uncovering only a few differentially expressed genes, hundreds of differentially translated genes were identified in NSCs with folate deficiency or supplementation. The differentially translated genes induced by low folate are associated with cytoplasmic translation and mitochondrial function, while the differentially translated genes induced by high folate are associated with increased neural stem cell proliferation. Interestingly, compared to total mRNAs, polysome mRNAs contained high levels of m5C. Furthermore, an integrative analysis indicated a transcript-specific relationship between RNA m5C methylation and mRNA translation efficiency.
Altogether, our study reports a transcriptome-wide influence of folate on mRNA m5C methylation and translation in NSCs and reveals a potential link between mRNA m5C methylation and mRNA translation.
The anther‐enriched phased, small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs) play vital roles in sustaining male fertility in grass species. Their long non‐coding precursors are synthesized by RNA polymerase II and are likely regulated by transcription factors (TFs). A few putative transcriptional regulators of the 21‐ or 24‐nucleotide phasiRNA loci (referred to as
21‐or 24‐PHASloci) have been identified in maize ( Zea mays), but whether any of the individual TFs or TF combinations suffice to activate any PHASlocus is unclear. Here, we identified the temporal gene coexpression networks (modules) associated with maize anther development, including two modules highly enriched for the 21‐or 24‐PHASloci. Comparisons of these coexpression modules and gene sets dysregulated in several reported male sterile TF mutants provided insights into TF timing with regard to phasiRNA biogenesis, including antagonistic roles for OUTER CELL LAYER4 and MALE STERILE23. Trans‐activation assays in maize protoplasts of individual TFs using bulk‐protoplast RNA‐sequencing showed that two of the TFs coexpressed with 21‐PHASloci could activate several 21‐nucleotide phasiRNA pathway genes but not transcription of 21‐PHASloci. Screens for combinatorial activities of these TFs and, separately, the recently reported putative transcriptional regulators of 24‐PHASloci using single‐cell (protoplast) RNA‐sequencing, did not detect reproducible activation of either 21‐PHASor 24‐PHASloci. Collectively, our results suggest that the endogenous transcriptional machineries and/or chromatin states in the anthers are necessary to activate reproductive PHASloci.
Twenty-four-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) maintain asymmetric DNA methylation at thousands of euchromatic transposable elements in plant genomes in a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). RdDM is dispensable for growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, but is required for reproduction in other plants, such as Brassica rapa. The 24-nt siRNAs are abundant in maternal reproductive tissue, due largely to overwhelming expression from a few loci in the ovule and developing seed coat, termed siren loci. A recent study showed that 24-nt siRNAs produced in the anther tapetal tissue can methylate male meiocyte genes in trans. Here we show that in B. rapa, a similar process takes place in female tissue. siRNAs are produced from gene fragments embedded in some siren loci, and these siRNAs can trigger methylation in trans at related protein-coding genes. This trans-methylation is associated with silencing of some target genes and may be responsible for seed abortion in RdDM mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a consensus sequence in at least two families of DNA transposons is associated with abundant siren expression, most likely through recruitment of CLASSY3, a putative chromatin remodeler. This research describes a mechanism whereby RdDM influences gene expression and sheds light on the role of RdDM during plant reproduction.
Fudal, Isabelle ; Di Pietro, Antonio (Ed.)ABSTRACT Differential growth conditions typically trigger global transcriptional responses in filamentous fungi. Such fungal responses to environmental cues involve epigenetic regulation, including chemical histone modifications. It has been proposed that conditionally expressed genes, such as those that encode secondary metabolites but also effectors in pathogenic species, are often associated with a specific histone modification, lysine27 methylation of H3 (H3K27me3). However, thus far, no analyses on the global H3K27me3 profiles have been reported under differential growth conditions in order to assess if H3K27me3 dynamics govern differential transcription. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and RNA sequencing data from the plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae grown in three in vitro cultivation media, we now show that a substantial number of the identified H3K27me3 domains globally display stable profiles among these growth conditions. However, we observe local quantitative differences in H3K27me3 ChIP-seq signals that are associated with a subset of differentially transcribed genes between media. Comparing the in vitro results to expression during plant infection suggests that in planta -induced genes may require chromatin remodeling to achieve expression. Overall, our results demonstrate that some loci display H3K27me3 dynamics associated with concomitant transcriptional variation, but many differentially expressed genes are associated with stable H3K27me3 domains. Thus, we conclude that while H3K27me3 is required for transcriptional repression, it does not appear that transcriptional activation requires the global erasure of H3K27me3. We propose that the H3K27me3 domains that do not undergo dynamic methylation may contribute to transcription through other mechanisms or may serve additional genomic regulatory functions. IMPORTANCE In many organisms, including filamentous fungi, epigenetic mechanisms that involve chemical and physical modifications of DNA without changing the genetic sequence have been implicated in transcriptional responses upon developmental or environmental cues. In fungi, facultative heterochromatin that can decondense to allow transcription in response to developmental changes or environmental stimuli is characterized by the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3), and H3K27me3 has been implicated in transcriptional regulation, although the precise mechanisms and functions remain enigmatic. Based on ChIP and RNA sequencing data, we show for the soilborne broad-host-range vascular wilt plant-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae that although some loci display H3K27me3 dynamics that can contribute to transcriptional variation, other loci do not show such a dependence. Thus, although we recognize that H3K27me3 is required for transcriptional repression, we also conclude that this mark is not a conditionally responsive global regulator of differential transcription upon responses to environmental cues.more » « less