skip to main content

Title: Daytime Pc5 Diffuse Auroral Pulsations and Their Association With Outer Magnetospheric ULF Waves

South Pole Station, Antarctica (SPA, magnetic latitude = −74.5°, magnetic local time (MLT) = UT–3.5 h), is a unique observatory which can capture daytime auroral forms throughout austral winter season. We have studied the properties and origin of ultralow‐frequency (ULF) range modulation of daytime diffuse aurora, using data acquired on June 23, 2017 by multi‐instrument measurements at SPA and in situ measurements in the dayside outer magnetosphere. At 1500–1600 UT, monochromatic Pc5‐range pulsations (period ∼10 min) emerged in the midday diffuse auroral region. The sequential 2‐D images reveal that the auroral pulsations result from the repetitive formation of faint, diffuse auroral patches, propagating poleward at a speed of ∼1.5 km s−1. Interestingly, no obviously similar magnetic pulsations were found at SPA. The results differ fundamentally from the ground optical and magnetic signatures expected for a standing field line resonance. On the other hand, the co‐located riometer and VLF receiver observed clearly synchronized pulsations, suggesting that tens‐of‐keV electrons interact with modulated chorus waves and then are scattered down to the auroral pulsation region. During the same interval, the THEMIS‐D spacecraft detected corresponding Pc5 oscillations in the dayside outer magnetosphere (9–10REand ∼15 MLT). The compressional component of the magnetospheric Pc5 waves, presumably driven by an external source, exhibited a good correspondence to the daytime Pc5 auroral pulsations. The simultaneous SPA–THEMIS observations highlight the role of compressional Pc5 pulsations in the dayside outer magnetosphere in determining the periodicity of daytime high‐latitude diffuse auroral pulsations.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Pc3 range frequency (22–100 mHz) auroral pulsations often occur at daytime high latitudes, equatorward of the cusp/cleft and typically map to the dayside outer magnetosphere. In this paper we present simultaneous observations of compressional Pc3 magnetic pulsations in the dayside outer magnetosphere that occurred in direct association with daytime Pc3 auroral pulsations at South Pole Station (−74.4° magnetic latitude). The pulsations were almost identical at the two locations, and their correlation was clearest when the magnetospheric pulsations were highly monochromatic. Lower‐band chorus waves and keV electron fluxes were also modulated in the Pc3 range, likely by the compressional magnetic pulsations. The common Pc3 frequency in the magnetosphere and aurora matched well with the predicted frequency of upstream ultralow frequency waves. These results provide the first compelling evidence for the direct dayside outer magnetosphere‐ionosphere linkage between upstream‐generated compressional Pc3 waves, Pc3 range modulations of chorus waves and keV electrons, and Pc3 auroral pulsations.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Recent studies of Pc5‐band (150–600 s) ultralow frequency waves found that foreshock disturbances can be a driver of dayside compressional waves and field line resonance, which are two typical Pc5 wave modes in the dayside magnetosphere. However, it is difficult to find spatial structure of dayside Pc5 waves using a small number of satellites or ground magnetometers. This study determines 2‐D structure of dayside Pc5 waves and their driver by utilizing coordinated observations by the THEMIS satellites and the all‐sky imager at South Pole during two series of Pc5 waves on 29 June 2008. These Pc5 waves were found to be field line resonances (FLRs) and driven by foreshock disturbances. The ground‐based all‐sky imager at South Pole shows that periodic poleward moving arcs occurred simultaneously with the FLRs near the satellite footprints over ~3°latitude and had the same frequencies as FLRs. This indicates that they are the auroral signature of the FLRs. The azimuthal distribution of the FLRs in the magnetosphere and their north‐south width in the ionosphere were further determined in the 2‐D images. In the first case, the FLRs distribute symmetrically in the prenoon and postnoon regions with out‐of‐phase oscillation as the odd toroidal mode in the equatorial plane. In the second case, the azimuthal wavelengths of the 350–500 s and 300–450 s period waves were ~8.0 and ~5.2 Re in the equatorial plane. It also shows a fine azimuthal structure embedded in the large‐scale arcs, indicating that a high azimuthal wave number (m~ 140) mode wave coupled with the low‐wave number FLRs.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Pc5 (2–7 mHz) ultralow frequency (ULF) waves play a significant role in resonating with particles and transferring energy in the coupled magnetospheric and ionospheric system. Recent studies found that Pc5 ULF waves can be triggered by foreshock transients which can perturb the magnetopause through dynamic pressure variation. However, whether foreshock transient‐driven Pc5 ULF waves are geoeffective and can propagate globally is still poorly understood. In this study, we take advantage of the conjunction between in situ (by the THEMIS probes, Geotail satellite, GOES satellites, and Van Allen probes) and ground‐based (by the all‐sky imager at South Pole and ground‐based magnetometers) observations to simultaneously analyze the waves from the foreshock region to the dayside and nightside magnetosphere. Both of our two events show that the Pc5 ULF waves are generated by foreshock transients in the dayside magnetosphere. The in situ observations by THEMIS A and D and the 2‐D auroral signatures show that the compressional mode waves are likely broadband and coupled to the FLRs with different frequencies and different azimuthal phase speeds. This is the first report that foreshock transients can drive both low‐ and high‐m FLRs, with the azimuthal wave numbers varying from ~5 to ~23. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves propagated antisunward to midnight, this can potentially modulate magnetospheric and ionospheric dynamics globally.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Utilizing observations from the Electron Losses and Fields Investigation satellites, we present a statistical study of ∼2,000 events in 2019–2020 characterizing the occurrence in magnetic local time (MLT) and latitude of ≥50 keV electron isotropy boundaries (IBs) and associated electron precipitation. The isotropy boundary of an electron of a given energy is the magnetic latitude poleward of which persistent isotropized pitch angle distributions (Jprec/Jperp∼ 1) are first observed to occur, interpreted as resulting from magnetic field‐line curvature scattering in the equatorial magnetosphere. We find that energetic electron IBs can be well‐recognized on the nightside from dusk until dawn, under all geomagnetic activity conditions, with a peak occurrence rate of almost 90% near ∼22 hr in MLT, remaining above 80% from 21 to 01 MLT. The observed IBs span International Geophysical Reference Field (IGRF) magnetic latitudes of 60°–74° with a maximum occurrence between 66° and 71° (Lof 6–8), trending toward lower latitudes and premidnight local times with activity. The precipitating energy flux of ≥50 keV electrons averaged over the IB‐associated latitudes varies over four orders of magnitude, up to 1 erg/cm2‐s, and often includes wide‐energy electron spectra exceeding 1 MeV. The IB‐associated energies and precipitating fluxes also exhibit peak values near midnight for low activity, shifting toward premidnight for elevated activity. The average total precipitating power deposited over the high‐latitude nightside atmosphere (55°–80°; IGRFL ≥ 3) attributed to IBs is 10%–20%, or 10 MW, but at times can approach 100% of the total ≥50 keV electron energy deposition over the entire subauroral and auroral zone region, exceeding 1 GW.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    We extend our database of whistler mode chorus, based on data from seven satellites, by including ∼3 years of data from Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)‐A and RBSP‐B and an additional ∼6 years of data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)‐A, THEMIS‐D, and THEMIS‐E. The new database allows us to probe the near‐equatorial region in detail, revealing new features. In the equatorial source region, |λm|<6°, strong wave power is most extensive in the 0.1–0.4fcebands in the region 21–11 magnetic local time (MLT) from the plasmapause out toL = 8 and beyond, especially near dawn. At higher frequencies, in the 0.4–0.6fcefrequency bands, strong wave power is more tightly confined, typically being restricted to the postmidnight sector in the region 4<L<6. The global distribution of strong chorus wave power changes dramatically with increasing magnetic latitude, with strong chorus waves in the region 12<|λm|<18° predominantly observed at frequencies below 0.3fcein the prenoon sector, in the region 5<L<8.

    more » « less