Kirigami (cutting and/or folding) offers a promising strategy to reconfigure metamaterials. Conventionally, kirigami metamaterials are often composed of passive cut unit cells to be reconfigured under mechanical forces. The constituent stimuli-responsive materials in active kirigami metamaterials instead will enable potential mechanical properties and functionality, arising from the active control of cut unit cells. However, the planar features of hinges in conventional kirigami structures significantly constrain the degrees of freedom (DOFs) in both deformation and actuation of the cut units. To release both constraints, here, we demonstrate a universal design of implementing folds to reconstruct sole-cuts–based metamaterials. We show that the supplemented folds not only enrich the structural reconfiguration beyond sole cuts but also enable more DOFs in actuating the kirigami metasheets into 3 dimensions (3D) in response to environmental temperature. Utilizing the multi-DOF in deformation of unit cells, we demonstrate that planar metasheets with the same cut design can self-fold into programmable 3D kirigami metastructures with distinct mechanical properties. Last, we demonstrate potential applications of programmable kirigami machines and easy-turning soft robots.
Kirigami, the ancient paper art of cutting, has recently emerged as a new approach to construct metamaterials with novel properties imparted by cuts. However, most studies are limited to thin sheets‐based 2D kirigami metamaterials with specific forms and limited reconfigurability due to planar connection constraints of cut units. Here, 3D modular kirigami is introduced by cutting bulk materials into spatially closed‐loop connected cut cubes to construct a new class of 3D kirigami metamaterials. The module is transformable with multiple degrees of freedom that can transform into versatile distinct daughter building blocks. Their conformable assembly creates a wealth of reconfigurable and disassemblable metamaterials with diverse structures and unique properties, including reconfigurable 1D column‐like materials, 2D lattice‐like metamaterials with phase transition of chirality, as well as 3D frustration‐free multilayered metamaterials with 3D auxetic behaviors and programmable deformation modes. This study largely expands the design space of kirigami metamaterials from 2D to 3D.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Advanced Functional Materials
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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