skip to main content

Title: A Daily Examination of African American Adolescents’ Racial Discrimination, Parental Racial Socialization, and Psychological Affect

This study examined 164 African American adolescents’ (Mage = 15) daily reports of racial discrimination and parental racial socialization over 21 days. The study examined same‐day and previous‐day associations of adolescents’ discrimination and socialization experiences with their positive and negative psychological affect. It further explored whether racial socialization messages buffered discrimination’s effects on affect when messages were received during the same day and on the day prior to discrimination. Findings indicated the deleterious effect of racial discrimination (associated with more negative affect) and highlighted the importance of examining youth’s short‐term coping in critical developmental years. Findings also showed how messages promote positive youth emotions. However, daily moderating associations differed from prior survey studies, suggesting the importance of examining short‐term processes.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Child Development
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 2123-2140
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Summary

    This study investigates how sleep regularity moderates the association between ethnic/racial discrimination and academic grades among diverse adolescents. The study included a 14‐day, daily diary and actigraphy study of ninth‐grade adolescents in the United States (N = 265; mean [SD] age 15.26 [0.62] years, 41.51% Asian, 21.13% Black, 37.35% Latinx, 71.32% female) who completed measures of demographic information and ethnic/racial discrimination (Daily Life Experiences Racism and Bother subscale). Sleep data were collected for 14 consecutive days with wrist actigraphy, and sleep regularity was calculated using the Sleep Regularity Index (SRI). Academic grades were provided by the Department of Education. Discrimination frequency was associated with lower academic grades, and the SRI moderated this association. Compared to adolescents who had moderate and regular SRI profiles, adolescents with irregular SRI (i.e., lower sleep regularity) had stronger negative associations between discrimination and grades. On the other hand, for adolescents who had moderate to high sleep regularity, there was no significant association between discrimination and grades. This study underscores the importance of sleep regularity for adolescents’ academic achievement.

    more » « less
  2. This study examined various parental racial socialization messages as mediators between school‐based racial discrimination and racial identity formation over 4 years for African American boys (= 639) and African American girls (= 711). Findings indicated that school‐based racial discrimination was associated with racial identity beliefs. For African American boys, behavioral racial socialization messages mediated the relation between school‐based racial discrimination and racial centrality over time. Mediation also resulted for African American girls, but for a different set of race‐related messages (negative messages and racial barriers) and racial identity beliefs. The developmental significance of the findings and implications for future research are discussed.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Using a three‐wave longitudinal sample of 108 Chinese American parent‐adolescent dyads (Mparent‐ageW1 = 45.44 years, 17% fathers;Madolescent‐ageW1 = 13.34 years, 50% boys), this study examined the effects of parents' COVID‐19‐related racial discrimination experiences on adolescents' ethnic identity exploration and anxiety as mediated by parents' awareness of discrimination (AOD) socialization and moderated by parents' anxiety and racial socialization competency (RSC). Parents' racial discrimination experiences in 2020 predicted adolescents' greater ethnic identity explorationorgreater anxiety in 2022 via parents' greater use of AOD in 2021, depending on the levels of parents' anxiety and RSC. These findings highlighted individual and contextual factors impacting racial socialization processes in Chinese American families.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Youth in the United States receive countless messages about the meanings and consequences of racial group membership. The processes through which these racialized messages are transmitted, known collectively as ethnic‐racial socialization, are known to influence youths’ psychosocial and academic development—especially their ethnic‐racial identity. However, most studies have focused exclusively on parents’ roles in the ethnic‐racial socialization process. In the present study, drawing on semi‐structured interviews with 64 Black adolescents, we examined youths’ descriptions of their experiences with (and understandings of) race to provide an “up‐close” view of the sources and processes involved in ethnic‐racial socialization. In addition to providing further evidence of the roles of parents and school curricula in shaping youths’ racial beliefs, results suggested that ethnic‐racial socialization messages frequently emerged from youths’ direct and vicarious exposure to racial discrimination and inequality in the schools they attended, the public places they visited, and in the media they consumed.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract Objective

    The study explored the mediating role of Chinese American parents' ethnic–racial identity (ERI) in linking their discrimination experiences, ethnic–racial socialization (ERS), and their children's mental health, testing whether neighborhood racial diversity and perceived Chinese density moderated these mediation paths.


    During COVID‐19, Chinese American families faced increased discrimination, impacting their mental well‐being. However, few studies have examined how parents' discrimination experiences influence their ERI, ERS practice, and ultimately their children's mental health difficulties.


    Data from 294 Chinese immigrant parents (Mage = 44.28, 79% female) were collected in two waves, 2020 and 2021. Path analysis tested if parental discrimination affects their ERI and ERS, and children's mental health. Multigroup analysis assessed if mediation models varied for families living in communities with low versus high racial diversity or Chinese density.


    Parental racism‐related stress at T1 had significant indirect effects on parental ERS practices (higher use of maintenance of heritage culture and lower use of avoidance of outgroups practice) at T2 via parental ERI (greater private regard) at T2. Parental racial discrimination (perceived sinophobia in the media and racism‐related stress) at T1 had significant indirect effects on children's mental health difficulties at T2 via parental ERS practices (use of maintenance of heritage culture and avoidance of outgroups practices) at T2. The neighborhood racial diversity moderated the mediation model.


    These findings advance the understanding of both individual (i.e., parental ERI) and contextual factors (i.e., neighborhood racial diversity) in the complex associations between parents' discrimination experiences and children's mental health difficulties.

    more » « less