Cytoplasmic dynein-1 (dynein) is the motor responsible for most retrograde transport of cargoes along microtubules in eukaryotic cells, including organelles, mRNA and viruses. Cargo selectivity and activation of processive motility depend on a group of so-called “activating adaptors” that link dynein to its general cofactor, dynactin, and cargoes. The mechanism by which these adaptors regulate dynein transport is poorly understood. Here, based on crystal structures, quantitative binding studies, and in vitro motility assays, we show that BICD2, CRACR2a, and HOOK3, representing three subfamilies of unrelated adaptors, interact with the same amphipathic helix of the dynein light intermediate chain-1 (LIC1). While the hydrophobic character of the interaction is conserved, the three adaptor subfamilies use different folds (coiled-coil, EF-hand, HOOK domain) and different surface contacts to bind the LIC1 helix with affinities ranging from 1.5 to 15.0 μM. We propose that a tunable LIC1-adaptor interaction modulates dynein’s motility in a cargo-specific manner.
The dynein adaptor
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 463-478
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Dynein harnesses ATP hydrolysis to move cargo on microtubules in multiple biological contexts. Dynein meets a unique challenge in meiosis by moving chromosomes tethered to the nuclear envelope to facilitate homolog pairing essential for gametogenesis. Though processive dynein motility requires binding to an activating adaptor, the identity of the activating adaptor required for dynein to move meiotic chromosomes is unknown. We show that the meiosis-specific nuclear-envelope protein KASH5 is a dynein activating adaptor: KASH5 directly binds dynein using a mechanism conserved among activating adaptors and converts dynein into a processive motor. We map the dynein-binding surface of KASH5, identifying mutations that abrogate dynein binding in vitro and disrupt recruitment of the dynein machinery to the nuclear envelope in cultured cells and mouse spermatocytes in vivo. Our study identifies KASH5 as the first transmembrane dynein activating adaptor and provides molecular insights into how it activates dynein during meiosis.more » « less
Across bacteria, protein-based organelles called bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) encapsulate key enzymes to regulate their activities. The model BMC is the carboxysome that encapsulates enzymes for CO2fixation to increase efficiency and is found in many autotrophic bacteria, such as cyanobacteria. Despite their importance in the global carbon cycle, little is known about how carboxysomes are spatially regulated. We recently identified the two-factor system required for the maintenance of carboxysome distribution (McdAB). McdA drives the equal spacing of carboxysomes via interactions with McdB, which associates with carboxysomes. McdA is a ParA/MinD ATPase, a protein family well studied in positioning diverse cellular structures in bacteria. However, the adaptor proteins like McdB that connect these ATPases to their cargos are extremely diverse. In fact, McdB represents a completely unstudied class of proteins. Despite the diversity, many adaptor proteins undergo phase separation, but functional roles remain unclear. Here, we define the domain architecture of McdB from the model cyanobacterium
Synechococcus elongatusPCC 7942, and dissect its mode of biomolecular condensate formation. We identify an N-terminal intrinsically disordered region (IDR) that modulates condensate solubility, a central coiled-coil dimerizing domain that drives condensate formation, and a C-terminal domain that trimerizes McdB dimers and provides increased valency for condensate formation. We then identify critical basic residues in the IDR, which we mutate to glutamines to solubilize condensates. Finally, we find that a condensate-defective mutant of McdB has altered association with carboxysomes and influences carboxysome enzyme content. The results have broad implications for understanding spatial organization of BMCs and the molecular grammar of protein condensates.
Mitochondrial transport along microtubules is mediated by Miro1 and TRAK adaptors that recruit kinesin-1 and dynein-dynactin. To understand how these opposing motors are regulated during mitochondrial transport, we reconstitute the bidirectional transport of Miro1/TRAK along microtubules in vitro. We show that the coiled-coil domain of TRAK activates dynein-dynactin and enhances the motility of kinesin-1 activated by its cofactor MAP7. We find that TRAK adaptors that recruit both motors move towards kinesin-1’s direction, whereas kinesin-1 is excluded from binding TRAK transported by dynein-dynactin, avoiding motor tug-of-war. We also test the predictions of the models that explain how mitochondrial transport stalls in regions with elevated Ca2+. Transport of Miro1/TRAK by kinesin-1 is not affected by Ca2+. Instead, we demonstrate that the microtubule docking protein syntaphilin induces resistive forces that stall kinesin-1 and dynein-driven motility. Our results suggest that mitochondrial transport stalls by Ca2+-mediated recruitment of syntaphilin to the mitochondrial membrane, not by disruption of the transport machinery.
Dynein is the primary minus-end-directed microtubule motor protein. To achieve activation, dynein binds to the dynactin complex and an adaptor to form the "activated dynein complex." The protein Lis1 aids activation by binding to dynein and promoting its association with dynactin and the adaptor. Ndel1 and its paralog Nde1 are dynein- and Lis1-binding proteins that help control dynein localization within the cell. Cell-based assays suggest that Ndel1-Nde1 also work with Lis1 to promote dynein activation, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Using purified proteins and quantitative binding assays, here we found that the C-terminal region of Ndel1 contributes to dynein binding and negatively regulates binding to Lis1. Using single-molecule imaging and protein biochemistry, we observed that Ndel1 inhibits dynein activation in two distinct ways. First, Ndel1 disfavors the formation of the activated dynein complex. We found that phosphomimetic mutations in the C-terminal domain of Ndel1 increase its ability to inhibit dynein-dynactin-adaptor complex formation. Second, we observed that Ndel1 interacts with dynein and Lis1 simultaneously and sequesters Lis1 away from its dynein-binding site. In doing this, Ndel1 prevents Lis1-mediated dynein activation. Together, our work suggests that in vitro, Ndel1 is a negative regulator of dynein activation, which contrasts with cellular studies where Ndel1 promotes dynein activity. To reconcile our findings with previous work, we posit that Ndel1 functions to scaffold dynein and Lis1 together while keeping dynein in an inhibited state. We speculate that Ndel1 release can be triggered in cellular settings to allow for timed dynein activation.more » « less