skip to main content

Title: Large Power Amplification in Magneto‐Mechano‐Electric Harvesters through Distributed Forcing

Energy harvesting from extremely low frequency magnetic fields using magneto‐mechano‐electric (MME) harvesters enables wireless power transfer for operating Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The MME harvesters are designed to resonate at a fixed frequency by absorbing AC magnetic fields through a composite cantilever comprising of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials, and a permanent magnetic tip mass. However, this harvester architecture limits power generation because volume of the magnetic end mass is closely coupled with the resonance frequency of the device structure. Here, a method is demonstrated for maintaining the resonance frequency of the MME harvesters under all operating conditions (e.g., 60 Hz, standard frequency of electricity in many countries) while simultaneously enhancing the output power generation. By distributing the magnetic mass over the beam, the output power of the harvester is significantly enhanced at a constant resonance frequency. The MME harvester with distributed forcing shows 280% improvement in the power generation compared with a traditional architecture. The generated power is shown to be sufficient to power eight different onboard sensors with wireless data transmission integrated on a drone. These results demonstrate the promise of MME energy harvesters for powering wireless communication and IoT sensors.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Internet of Things (IoT) is driving the development of new generation of sensors, communication components, and power sources. Ideally, IoT sensors and communication components are expected to be powered by sustainable energy source freely available in the environment. Here, a breakthrough in this direction is provided by demonstrating high output power energy harvesting from very low amplitude stray magnetic fields, which exist everywhere, through magnetoelectric (ME) coupled magneto‐mechano‐electric (MME) energy conversion. ME coupled MME harvester comprised of multiple layers of amorphous magnetostrictive material, piezoelectric macrofiber composite, and magnetic tip mass, interacts with an external magnetic field to generate electrical energy. Comprehensive experimental investigation and a theoretical model reveal that both the magnetic torque generated through magnetic loading and amplification of magneto‐mechanical vibration by ME coupling contributes toward the generation of high electrical power from the stray magnetic field around power cables of common home appliances. The generated electrical power from the harvester is sufficient for operating microsensors (gyro, temperature, and humidity sensing) and wireless data transmission systems. These results will facilitate the deployment of IoT devices in emerging intelligent infrastructures.

    more » « less
  2. Dutta, Achyut K. ; Balaya, Palani ; Xu, Sheng (Ed.)
    Monitoring human health in real-time using wearable and implantable electronics (WIE) has become one of the most promising and rapidly growing technologies in the healthcare industry. In general, these electronics are powered by batteries that require periodic replacement and maintenance over their lifetime. To prolong the operation of these electronics, they should have zero post-installation maintenance. On this front, various energy harvesting technologies to generate electrical energy from ambient energy sources have been researched. Many energy harvesters currently available are limited by their power output and energy densities. With the miniaturization of wearable and implantable electronics, the size of the harvesters must be miniaturized accordingly in order to increase the energy density of the harvesters. Additionally, many of the energy harvesters also suffer from limited operational parameters such as resonance frequency and variable input signals. In this work, low frequency motion energy harvesting based on reverse electrowetting-ondielectric (REWOD) is examined using perforated high surface area electrodes with 38 µm pore diameters. Total available surface area per planar area was 8.36 cm2 showing a significant surface area enhancement from planar to porous electrodes and proportional increase in AC voltage density from our previous work. In REWOD energy harvesting, high surface area electrodes significantly increase the capacitance and hence the power density. An AC peak-to-peak voltage generation from the electrode in the range from 1.57-3.32 V for the given frequency range of 1-5 Hz with 0.5 Hz step is demonstrated. In addition, the unconditioned power generated from the harvester is converted to a DC power using a commercial off-theshelf Schottky diode-based voltage multiplier and low dropout regulator (LDO) such that the sensors that use this technology could be fully self-powered. The produced charge is then converted to a proportional voltage by using a commercial charge amplifier to record the features of the motion activities. A transceiver radio is also used to transmit the digitized data from the amplifier and the built-in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the micro-controller. This paper proposes the energy harvester acting as a self-powered motion sensor for different physical activities for wearable and wireless healthcare devices. 
    more » « less
  3. The rising global trend to reduce dependence on fossil fuels has provided significant motivation toward the development of alternative energy conversion methods and new technologies to improve their efficiency. Recently, oscillating energy harvesters have shown promise as highly efficient and scalable turbines, which can be implemented in areas where traditional energy extraction and conversion are either unfeasible or cost prohibitive. Although such devices are quickly gaining popularity, there remain a number of hurdles in the understanding of their underlying fluid dynamics phenomena. The ability to achieve high efficiency power output from oscillating airfoil energy harvesters requires exploitation of the complexities of the event of dynamic stall. During dynamic stall, the oncoming flow separates at the leading edge of the airfoil to form leading ledge vortex (LEV) structures. While it is well known that LEVs play a significant role in aerodynamic force generation in unsteady animal flight (e.g. insects and birds), there is still a need to further understand their spatiotemporal evolution in order to design more effective energy harvesting enhancement mechanisms. In this work, we conduct extensive experimental investigations to shed-light on the flow physics of a heaving and pitching airfoil energy harvester operating at reduced frequencies of k = fc=U1 = 0.06-0.18, pitching amplitude of 0 = 75 and heaving amplitude of h0 = 0:6c. The experimental work involves the use of two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements conducted in a wind tunnel facility at Oregon State University. Velocity fields obtained from the PIV measurements are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to provide a description of the dynamics of LEVs and other flow structures that may be present during dynamic stall. Due to the difficulties of accurately measuring aerodynamic forces in highly unsteady flows in wind tunnels, a reduced-order model based on the vortex-impulse theory is proposed for estimating the aerodynamic loadings and power output using flow field data. The reduced-order model is shown to be dominated by two terms that have a clear physical interpretation: (i) the time rate of change of the impulse of vortical structures and (ii) the Kutta-Joukowski force which indirectly represents the history effect of vortex shedding in the far wake. Furthermore, the effects of a bio-inspired flow control mechanism based on deforming airfoil surfaces on the flow dynamics and energy harvesting performance are investigated. The results show that the aerodynamic loadings, and hence power output, are highly dependent on the formation, growth rate, trajectory and detachment of the LEV. It is shown that the energy harvesting efficiency increases with increasing reduced frequency, peaking at 25% when k = 0.14, agreeing very well with published numerical results. At this optimal reduced frequency, the time scales of the LEV evolution and airfoil kinematics are matched, resulting in highly correlated aerodynamic load generation and airfoil motion. When operating at k > 0:14, it is shown that the aerodynamic moment and airfoil pitching motion become negatively correlated and as a result, the energy harvesting performance is deteriorated. Furthermore, by using a deforming airfoil surface at the leading and trailing edges, the peak energy harvesting efficiency is shown to increase by approximately 17% and 25% relative to the rigid airfoil, respectively. The performance enhancement is associated with enhanced aerodynamic forces for both the deforming leading and trailing edges. In addition, The deforming trailing edge airfoil is shown to enhance the correlation between the aerodynamic moment and pitching motion at higher reduced frequencies, resulting in a peak efficiency at k = 0:18 as opposed to k = 0:14 for the rigid airfoil. 
    more » « less
  4. Vibration energy is becoming a significant alternative solution for energy generation. Recently, a great deal of research has been conducted on how to harvest energy from vibration sources ranging from ocean waves to human motion to microsystems. In this paper, a theoretical model of a piecewise-linear (PWL) nonlinear vibration harvester that has potential applications in variety of fields is proposed and numerically investigated. This new technique enables automatic frequency tunability in the energy harvester by controlling the gap size in the PWL oscillator so that it is able to adapt to changes in excitations. To optimize the performance of the proposed system, a control method combining the response prediction, signal measurement and gap adjustment mechanism is proposed in this paper. This new energy harvester not only overcomes the limitation of traditional linear energy harvesters that can only provide the maximum power generation efficiency over a narrow frequency range but also improves the performance of current nonlinear energy harvesters that are not as efficient as linear energy harvesters at resonance. The proposed system is demonstrated in several case studies to illustrate its effectiveness for a number of different excitations. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract A tremendous amount of research has been performed on the design and analysis of vibration energy harvester architectures with the goal of optimizing power output. Often, little attention is given to the actual characteristics of common vibrations from which energy is harvested. In order to shed light on the characteristics of common ambient vibration, data representing 333 vibration signals were downloaded from the NiPS Laboratory “Real Vibration” database, processed, and categorized according to the source of the signal (e. g. vehicle, machine, etc.), the number of dominant frequencies, the nature of the dominant frequencies (e. g. stationary, band-limited noise, etc.), and other metrics. By categorizing signals in this way, the set of idealized vibration inputs (i. e. single stationary frequency, Gaussian white noise, etc.) commonly assumed for harvester input can be corroborated and refined. Furthermore, some heretofore overlooked vibration input types are given motivation for investigation. The classification determined that, of the set of signals used in the study, 64 % of the animal source signals are best described with nonstationary dominant frequencies, 58 % of machine source signals are best described with stationary frequencies, and vehicle source signals are poorly described by any one signal type used in the classification. Nonlinear harvesters with a cubic stiffness term have received extensive attention in the scholarly literature; a numerical simulation and optimization procedure were performed using several representative signals as vibration inputs to determine the prevalence with which such a nonlinear harvester architecture might provide improvement to power output. The analysis indicated that a nonlinear harvester architecture may prove beneficial in increasing power output over a linear counterpart if the signal contains a single, dominant frequency that is not stationary in time, as evidenced by a 14 % increase in harvester power output when employing an architecture with a nonlinear cubic stiffness function. Other studies have indicated that nonlinear architectures may be beneficial for signals with nonstationary frequencies or filtered noise. 53 % of the all characterized signals fall into categories that could potentially benefit from a nonlinear oscillator architecture. 
    more » « less