Multimaterial additive manufacturing has important applications in various emerging fields. However, it is very challenging due to material and printing technology limitations. Here, we present a resin design strategy that can be used for single-vat single-cure grayscale digital light processing (g-DLP) 3D printing where light intensity can locally control the conversion of monomers to form from a highly stretchable soft organogel to a stiff thermoset within in a single layer of printing. The high modulus contrast and high stretchability can be realized simultaneously in a monolithic structure at a high printing speed (z-direction height 1 mm/min). We further demonstrate that the capability can enable previously unachievable or hard-to-achieve 3D printed structures for biomimetic designs, inflatable soft robots and actuators, and soft stretchable electronics. This resin design strategy thus provides a material solution in multimaterial additive manufacture for a variety of emerging applications.
Shape-morphing structures that can reconfigure their shape to adapt to diverse tasks are highly desirable for intelligent machines in many interdisciplinary fields. Shape memory polymers are one of the most widely used stimuli-responsive materials, especially in 3D/4D printing, for fabricating shape-morphing systems. They typically go through a hot-programming step to obtain the shape-morphing capability, which possesses limited freedom of reconfigurability. Cold-programming, which directly deforms the structure into a temporary shape without increasing the temperature, is simple and more versatile but has stringent requirements on material properties. Here, we introduce grayscale digital light processing (g-DLP) based 3D printing as a simple and effective platform for fabricating shape-morphing structures with cold-programming capabilities. With the multimaterial-like printing capability of g-DLP, we develop heterogeneous hinge modules that can be cold-programmed by simply stretching at room temperature. Different configurations can be encoded during 3D printing with the variable distribution and direction of the modular-designed hinges. The hinge module allows controllable independent morphing enabled by cold programming. By leveraging the multimaterial-like printing capability, multi-shape morphing structures are presented. The g-DLP printing with cold-programming morphing strategy demonstrates enormous potential in the design and fabrication of shape-morphing structures.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Nature Publishing Group
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Nature Communications
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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