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Title: Tribo‐Tunneling DC Generator with Carbon Aerogel/Silicon Multi‐Nanocontacts
Abstract

Although tip‐enhanced tribo‐tunneling in metal/semiconductor point nanocontact is capable of producing DC with high current density, scaling up the process for power harvesting for practical applications is challenging due to the complexity of tip array fabrication and insufficient voltage output. Here, it is demonstrated that mechanical contact between a carbon aerogel and silicon (SiO2/Si) interface naturally forms multiple nanocontacts for tribo‐tunneling current generation with an open‐circuit voltage output (VOC) reaching 2 V, and short‐circuit DC current output (ISC) of ≈15 µA. It has a theoretical current density ( J*) on the order of 100 A m−2. Molecular dynamics simulation and atomistic field theory show that a strong localized electronic excitation can be induced at a dynamic carbon/SiO2sliding interface, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The DC power output is enhanced by the intense local pressure at the presence of nanocontacts, as well as the increased sliding velocityv. To demonstrate the method for practical applications, light‐emitting diodes (LEDs) with different colors are successfully lighted by a single‐carbon aerogel monolith/SiO2sliding unit, and the DC electricity is stored in a capacitor without an additional rectification circuit.

 
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NSF-PAR ID:
10459367
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Electronic Materials
Volume:
5
Issue:
12
ISSN:
2199-160X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Award No. ECCS-1931088. S.L. and H.W.S. acknowledge the support from the Improvement of Measurement Standards and Technology for Mechanical Metrology (Grant No. 20011028) by KRISS. K.N. was supported by Basic Science Research Program (NRF-2021R11A1A01051246) through the NRF Korea funded by the Ministry of Education.

    References

    Lee, D. H.; Park, H.; Clevenger, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, C. S.; Liu, M.; Kim, G.; Song, H. W.; No, K.; Kim, S. Y.; Ko, D.-K.; Lucietto, A.; Park, H.; Lee, S., High-Performance Oxide-Based p–n Heterojunctions Integrating p-SnOx and n-InGaZnO.ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces2021,13(46), 55676-55686.

    Hautier, G.; Miglio, A.; Ceder, G.; Rignanese, G.-M.; Gonze, X., Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides.Nat Commun2013,4.

    Yim, K.; Youn, Y.; Lee, M.; Yoo, D.; Lee, J.; Cho, S. H.; Han, S., Computational discovery of p-type transparent oxide semiconductors using hydrogen descriptor.npj Computational Materials2018,4(1), 17.

    Figure 1

     

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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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