skip to main content


Title: Comparison of the chemical and textural properties of germ‐remaining soft rice grains from different spikelet positions
Abstract Background and objectives

Rice with very low amylose content tends to have a good taste, while germ‐remaining rice is nutritive because it retains nutrient‐rich embryos. We cultivated a batch of new germ‐remaining rice varieties with very low amylose content, and good nutrition and taste. We tested the differences in taste quality between superior and inferior grains.

Findings

The plumule ratio of superior grain was significantly higher than that of inferior grain. The elasticity of the surface layer and whole layer of superior grains was greatly reduced, whereas quality of balance (stickiness/hardness) and tackiness were increased. The proportion of apparent amylose content (AAC) and amylopectin long‐chain branching (Fb3) decreased, whereas the proportion of medium‐length branches (Fb1+2) increased significantly. Correlation analysis showed that small value of aspect ratio and low proportion Fb3, especially the former, can improve the quality of balance of rice. Moreover, plumule ratio showed a high correlation with grain shape and filling degree.

Conclusions

Therefore, for the specially developed rice, plumule ratio and edibility can be improved by promoting grain plumpness and weight ratio of the embryo, especially the inferior grain.

Significance and novelty

For rice taste improving, the contribution of grain filling was greater than that of chemical changes in the endosperm composition, and breeders should pay attention to grain shape improvement and filling to improve the taste of rice.

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10459774
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Cereal Chemistry
Volume:
96
Issue:
6
ISSN:
0009-0352
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 1137-1147
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Starch biosynthesis is a complex process underlying grain chalkiness in rice in a genotype-dependent manner. Coordinated expression of starch biosynthesis genes is important for producing translucent rice grains, while disruption in this process leads to opaque or chalky grains. To better understand the dynamics of starch biosynthesis genes in grain chalkiness, six rice genotypes showing variable chalk levels were subjected to gene expression analysis during reproductive stages. In the chalky genotypes, peak expression of the large subunit genes of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), encoding the first key step in starch biosynthesis, occurred in the stages before grain filling commenced, creating a gap with the upregulation of starch synthase genes, granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and starch synthase IIA (SSIIA). Whereas, in low-chalk genotypes, AGPase large subunit genes expressed at later stages, generally following the expression patterns of GBSSI and SSIIA. However, heat treatment altered the expression in a genotype-dependent manner that was accompanied by transformed grain morphology and increased chalkiness. The suppression of AGPase subunit genes during early grain filling stages was observed in the chalky genotypes or upon heat treatment, which could result in a limited pool of ADP-Glucose for synthesizing amylose and amylopectin, the major components of the starch. This suboptimal starch biosynthesis process could subsequently lead to inefficient grain filling and air pockets that contribute to chalkiness. In summary, this study suggests a mechanism of grain chalkiness based on the expression patterns of the starch biosynthesis genes in rice. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Rapid increases in minimum night temperature than in maximum day temperature is predicted to continue, posing significant challenges to crop productivity. Rice and wheat are two major staples that are sensitive to high night‐temperature (HNT) stress. This review aims to (i) systematically compare the grain yield responses of rice and wheat exposed to HNT stress across scales, and (ii) understand the physiological and biochemical responses that affect grain yield and quality. To achieve this, we combined a synthesis of current literature on HNT effects on rice and wheat with information from a series of independent experiments we conducted across scales, using a common set of genetic materials to avoid confounding our findings with differences in genetic background. In addition, we explored HNT‐induced alterations in physiological mechanisms including carbon balance, source–sink metabolite changes and reactive oxygen species. Impacts of HNT on grain developmental dynamics focused on grain‐filling duration, post‐flowering senescence, changes in grain starch and protein composition, starch metabolism enzymes and chalk formation in rice grains are summarized. Finally, we highlight the need for high‐throughput field‐based phenotyping facilities for improved assessment of large‐diversity panels and mapping populations to aid breeding for increased resilience to HNT in crops.

     
    more » « less
  3. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a widely used approach for characterising the microstructure of various materials. However, it is difficult to accurately distinguish similar (body centred cubic and body centred tetragonal, with small tetragonality) phases in steels using standard EBSD software. One method to tackle the problem of phase distinction is to measure the tetragonality of the phases, which can be done using simulated patterns and cross‐correlation techniques to detect distortion away from a perfectly cubic crystal lattice. However, small errors in the determination of microscope geometry (the so‐called pattern or projection centre) can cause significant errors in tetragonality measurement and lead to erroneous results. This paper utilises a new approach for accurate pattern centre determination via a strain minimisation routine across a large number of grains in dual phase steels. Tetragonality maps are then produced and used to identify phase and estimate local carbon content. The technique is implemented using both kinetically simulated and dynamically simulated patterns to determine their relative accuracy. Tetragonality maps, and subsequent phase maps, based on dynamically simulated patterns in a point‐by‐point and grain average comparison are found to consistently produce more precise and accurate results, with close to 90% accuracy for grain phase identification, when compared with an image‐quality identification method. The error in tetragonality measurements appears to be of the order of 1%, thus producing a commensurate ∼0.2% error in carbon content estimation. Such an error makes the technique unsuitable for estimation of total carbon content of most commercial steels, which often have carbon levels below 0.1%. However, even in the DP steel for this study (0.1 wt.% carbon) it can be used to map carbon in regions with higher accumulation (such as in martensite with nonhomogeneous carbon content).

    Lay Description

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a widely used approach for characterising the microstructure of various materials. However, it is difficult to accurately distinguish similar (BCC and BCT) phases in steels using standard EBSD software due to the small difference in crystal structure. One method to tackle the problem of phase distinction is to measure the tetragonality, or apparent ‘strain’ in the crystal lattice, of the phases. This can be done by comparing experimental EBSD patterns with simulated patterns via cross‐correlation techniques, to detect distortion away from a perfectly cubic crystal lattice. However, small errors in the determination of microscope geometry (the so‐called pattern or projection centre) can cause significant errors in tetragonality measurement and lead to erroneous results. This paper utilises a new approach for accurate pattern centre determination via a strain minimisation routine across a large number of grains in dual phase steels. Tetragonality maps are then produced and used to identify phase and estimate local carbon content. The technique is implemented using both simple kinetically simulated and more complex dynamically simulated patterns to determine their relative accuracy. Tetragonality maps, and subsequent phase maps, based on dynamically simulated patterns in a point‐by‐point and grain average comparison are found to consistently produce more precise and accurate results, with close to 90% accuracy for grain phase identification, when compared with an image‐quality identification method. The error in tetragonality measurements appears to be of the order of 1%, thus producing a commensurate error in carbon content estimation. Such an error makes an estimate of total carbon content particularly unsuitable for low carbon steels; although maps of local carbon content may still be revealing.

    Application of the method developed in this paper will lead to better understanding of the complex microstructures of steels, and the potential to design microstructures that deliver higher strength and ductility for common applications, such as vehicle components.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Previous work has shown that inorganic As localizes in rice bran whereas DMA localizes in the endosperm, but less is known about co-localization of As and S species and how they are affected by growing conditions. We used high-resolution synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging to image As and S species in rice grain from plants grown to maturity in soil (field and pot) and hydroponically (DMA or arsenite dosed) at field-relevant As concentrations. In hydroponics, arsenite was localized in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) and the bran while DMA permeated the endosperm and was absent from the OVT in all grains analyzed, and As species had no affect on S species. In pot studies, soil amended with Si-rich rice husk with higher DMA shifted grain As into the endosperm for both japonica and indica ecotypes. In field-grown rice from low-As soil, As localized in the OVT as arsenite glutathione, arsenite, and DMA. Results support a circumferential model of grain filling for arsenite and DMA and show Si-rich soil amendments alter grain As localization, potentially lessening risk to rice consumers.

     
    more » « less
  5. SUMMARY

    Grain chalkiness is a major concern in rice production because it impacts milling yield and cooking quality, eventually reducing market value of the rice. A gene encoding vacuolar H+translocating pyrophosphatase (V‐PPase) is a major quantitative trait locus inindicarice, controlling grain chalkiness. Higher transcriptional activity of this gene is associated with increased chalk content. However, whether the suppression ofV‐PPasecould reduce chalkiness is not clear. Furthermore, natural variation in the chalkiness ofjaponicarice has not been linked withV‐PPase. Here, we describe promoter targeting of thejaponica V‐PPaseallele that led to reduced grain chalkiness and the development of more translucent grains. Disruption of a putative GATA element by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR‐associated protein 9 suppressedV‐PPaseactivity, reduced grain chalkiness and impacted post‐germination growth that could be rescued by the exogenous supply of sucrose. The mature grains of the targeted lines showed a much lower percentage of large or medium chalk. Interestingly, the targeted lines developed a significantly lower chalk under heat stress, a major inducer of grain chalk. Metabolomic analysis showed that pathways related to starch and sugar metabolism were affected in the developing grains of the targeted lines that correlated with higher inorganic pyrophosphate and starch contents and upregulation of starch biosynthesis genes. In summary, we show a biotechnology approach of reducing grain chalkiness in rice by downregulating the transcriptional activity ofV‐PPasethat presumably leads to altered metabolic rates, including starch biosynthesis, resulting in more compact packing of starch granules and formation of translucent rice grains.

     
    more » « less