A severe derecho impacted the Midwestern United States on 10 August 2020, causing over $12 billion (U.S. dollars) in damage, and producing peak winds estimated at 63 m s−1, with the worst impacts in Iowa. The event was not forecast well by operational forecasters, nor even by operational and quasi-operational convection-allowing models. In the present study, nine simulations are performed using the Limited Area Model version of the Finite-Volume-Cubed-Sphere model (FV3-LAM) with three horizontal grid spacings and two physics suites. In addition, when a prototype of the Rapid Refresh Forecast System (RRFS) physics is used, sensitivity tests are performed to examine the impact of using the Grell–Freitas (GF) convective scheme. Several unusual results are obtained. With both the RRFS (not using GF) and Global Forecast System (GFS) physics suites, simulations using relatively coarse 13- and 25-km horizontal grid spacing do a much better job of showing an organized convective system in Iowa during the daylight hours of 10 August than the 3-km grid spacing runs. In addition, the RRFS run with 25-km grid spacing becomes much worse when the GF convective scheme is used. The 3-km RRFS run that does not use the GF scheme develops spurious nocturnal convection the night before the derecho, removing instability and preventing the derecho from being simulated at all. When GF is used, the spurious storms are removed and an excellent forecast is obtained with an intense bowing echo, exceptionally strong cold pool, and roughly 50 m s−1surface wind gusts.
The dynamical core that predicts the three‐dimensional vorticity rather than the momentum, which is called Vector‐Vorticity Model (VVM), is implemented on a cubed sphere. Its horizontal coordinate system is not restricted to orthogonal, while the vertical coordinate is orthogonal to the horizontal surface. Accordingly, all the governing equations of the VVM, which are originally developed with Cartesian coordinates, are rewritten in terms of general curvilinear coordinates. The local coordinates on each cube surface are constructed with the gnomonic equiangular projection. Using global channel domains, the VVM on the cubed sphere has been evaluated by (1) advecting a passive tracer with a bell‐shaped initial perturbation along an east‐west latitude circle and along a north‐south meridional circle and (2) simulating the evolution of barotropic and baroclinic instabilities. The simulated results with the cubed‐sphere grids are compared to analytic solutions or those with the regular longitude‐latitude grids. The convergence with increasing spatial resolution is also quantified using standard error norms. The comparison shows that the solutions with the cubed‐sphere grids are quite reasonable for both linear and nonlinear problems when high resolutions are used. With coarse resolution, degeneracy appears in the solutions of the nonlinear problems such as spurious wave growth; however, it is effectively reduced with increased resolution. Based on the encouraging results in this study, we intend to use this model as the cloud‐resolving component in a global Quasi‐Three‐Dimensional Multiscale Modeling Framework.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 560-577
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Associated article abstract: The hydrologic cycle couples the Earth's energy and carbon budgets through evaporation, moisture transport, and precipitation. Despite a wealth of observations and models, fundamental limitations remain in our capacity to deduce even the most basic properties of the hydrological cycle, including the spatial pattern of the residence time (RT) of water in the atmosphere and the mean distance traveled from evaporation sources to precipitation sinks. Meanwhile, geochemical tracers such as stable water isotope ratios provide a tool to probe hydrological processes, yet their interpretation remains equivocal despite several decades of use. As a result, there is a need for new mechanistic tools that link variations in water isotope ratios to underlying hydrological processes. Here we present a new suite of “process-oriented tags,” which we use to explicitly trace hydrological processes within the isotopically enabled Community Atmosphere Model, version 6 (iCAM6). 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