skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on October 11, 2024

Title: Expedition 391 methods
This chapter outlines the procedures and methods employed for coring and drilling operations as well as in the various shipboard laboratories of the R/V JOIDES Resolution during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 391. The laboratory information applies only to shipboard work described in the Expedition Reports section of the Expedition 391 Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program volume, using the shipboard sample registry, imaging and analytical instruments, core description tools, and the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) database. Methods used by investigators for shore-based analyses of Expedition 391 samples and data will be described in separate individual peer-reviewed scientific publications.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1326927
NSF-PAR ID:
10468466
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publisher / Repository:
International Ocean Discovery Program
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition reports
Volume:
391
Issue:
102
ISSN:
2377-3189
Subject(s) / Keyword(s):
["International Ocean Discovery Program","IODP","JOIDES Resolution","Expedition 391","Walvis Ridge Hotspot","Site U1575","Site U1576","Site U1577","Site U1578","Earth Connections","Tristan-Gough-Walvis Hotspot","true polar wander","isotopic zonation","large low shear-wave velocity province","LLSVP"]
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. This section provides an overview of operations, depth conventions, core handling, curatorial procedures, and analyses performed on the R/V JOIDES Resolution during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) South Atlantic Transect (SAT) Expeditions 390C, 395E, 390, and 393. This information applies only to shipboard work described in the Expedition reports section of the SAT Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program volume. Methods used by investigators for shore-based analyses of expedition samples and data will be described in separate individual postexpedition research publications. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 363 recovered extended Neogene to Quaternary carbonate- and clay-rich sedimentary successions at Site U1482 (15°3.32ʹS, 120°26.10ʹE; 1466 m water depth), drilled at the southwestern edge of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool off northwest Australia (Rosenthal et al., 2018b). Four holes were drilled with the advanced piston corer (APC) system at this site and deepened with the half-length APC (HLAPC) and extended core barrel (XCB) systems. A shipboard splice, from 0 to 451.26 m core composite depth below seafloor (CCSF), was established. After the expedition, the cores were scanned at high-resolution (1–2 cm) using an Avaatech X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner. Scanning was performed along the shipboard splice with approximately 1 m overlap at the splice tie points for verification. Based on this new data set, we revised nine of the original splice tie points. The revised splice for Site U1482 now extends to 445.11 m revised CCSF and is available from the IODP Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) database. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 357 successfully cored an east–west transect across the southern wall of Atlantis Massif on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to study the links between serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. The primary goals of this expedition were to (1) examine the role of serpentinization in driving hydrothermal systems, sustaining microbial communities, and sequestering carbon; (2) characterize the tectonomagmatic processes that lead to lithospheric heterogeneities and detachment faulting; and (3) assess how abiotic and biotic processes change with variations in rock type and progressive exposure on the seafloor. To accomplish these objectives, we developed a coring and sampling strategy based around the use of seabed rock drills—the first time that such systems have been used in the scientific ocean drilling programs. This technology was chosen in hopes of achieving high recovery of the carbonate cap sequences and intact contact and deformation relationships. The expedition plans also included several engineering developments to assess geochemical parameters during drilling; sample bottom water before and after drilling; supply synthetic tracers during drilling for contamination assessment; gather downhole electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility logs for assessing fractures, fluid flow, and extent of serpentinization; and seal boreholes to provide opportunities for future experiments. Seventeen holes were drilled at nine sites across Atlantis Massif, with two sites on the eastern end of the southern wall (Sites M0068 and M0075), three sites in the central section of the southern wall north of the Lost City hydrothermal field (Sites M0069, M0072, and M0076), two sites on the western end (Sites M0071 and M0073), and two sites north of the southern wall in the direction of the central dome of the massif and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1309 (Sites M0070 and M0074). Use of seabed rock drills enabled collection of more than 57 m of core, with borehole penetration ranging from 1.3 to 16.44 meters below seafloor and core recoveries as high as 75% of total penetration. This high level of recovery of shallow mantle sequences is unprecedented in the history of ocean drilling. The cores recovered along the southern wall of Atlantis Massif have highly heterogeneous lithologies, types of alteration, and degrees of deformation. The ultramafic rocks are dominated by harzburgites with intervals of dunite and minor pyroxenite veins, as well as gabbroic rocks occurring as melt impregnations and veins, all of which provide information about early magmatic processes and the magmatic evolution in the southernmost portion of Atlantis Massif. Dolerite dikes and basaltic rocks represent the latest stage of magmatic activity. Overall, the ultramafic rocks recovered during Expedition 357 revealed a high degree of serpentinization, as well as metasomatic talc-amphibole-chlorite overprinting and local rodingitization. Metasomatism postdates an early phase of serpentinization but predates late-stage intrusion and alteration of dolerite dikes and the extrusion of basalt. The intensity of alteration is generally lower in the gabbroic and doleritic rocks. Chilled margins in dolerite intruded into talc-amphibole-chlorite schists are observed at the most eastern Site M0075. Deformation in Expedition 357 cores is variable and dominated by brecciation and formation of localized shear zones; the degree of carbonate veining was lower than anticipated. All types of variably altered and deformed ultramafic and mafic rocks occur as components in sedimentary breccias and as fault scarp rubble. The sedimentary cap rocks include basaltic breccias with a carbonate sand matrix and/or fossiliferous carbonate. Fresh glass on basaltic components was observed in some of the breccias. The expedition also successfully applied new technologies, namely (1) extensively using an in situ sensor package and water sampling system on the seabed drills for evaluating real-time dissolved oxygen and methane, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature, and conductivity during drilling; (2) deploying a borehole plug system for sealing seabed drill boreholes at four sites to allow access for future sampling; and (3) proving that tracers can be delivered into drilling fluids when using seabed drills. The rock drill sensor packages and water sampling enabled detection of elevated dissolved methane and hydrogen concentrations during and/or after drilling, with “hot spots” of hydrogen observed over Sites M0068–M0072 and methane over Sites M0070–M0072. Shipboard determination of contamination tracer delivery confirmed appropriate sample handling procedures for microbiological and geochemical analyses, which will aid all subsequent microbiological investigations that are part of the science party sampling plans, as well as verify this new tracer delivery technology for seabed drill rigs. Shipboard investigation of biomass density in select samples revealed relatively low and variable cell densities, and enrichment experiments set up shipboard reveal growth. Thus, we anticipate achieving many of the deep biosphere–related objectives of the expedition through continued scientific investigation in the coming years. Finally, although not an objective of the expedition, we were serendipitously able to generate a high-resolution (20 m per pixel) multibeam bathymetry map across the entire Atlantis Massif and the nearby fracture zone, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and eastern conjugate, taking advantage of weather and operational downtime. This will assist science party members in evaluating and interpreting tectonic and mass-wasting processes at Atlantis Massif. 
    more » « less
  4. The objectives of International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 398, Hellenic Arc Volcanic Field (11 December 2022 to 10 February 2023), were to study the volcanic record of the central Hellenic island arc; document the links and feedbacks between volcanism/magmatism, crustal tectonics, and sea level; investigate the processes and products of shallow submarine eruptions of silicic magma; and groundtruth the seismic stratigraphy of Santorini caldera. Reconstructing the subsidence history of the southern Aegean Sea and searching for deep life inside and outside of Santorini caldera were additional objectives. The expedition drilled 10 primary and alternate sites that were originally proposed, in addition to 2 extra sites that were requested during the expedition. Outside of Santorini caldera, drilling penetrated the thick basin fills of the crustal rift system hosting the Christiana-Santorini-Kolumbo volcanic field, identifying numerous pumice and ash layers, some known from on land and others hitherto unknown, pushing back the onset of volcanism in the area into the Early Pleistocene or even Pliocene. Significant events of mass wasting into the basins, accompanied by very high sedimentation rates, were also documented. These basin sites served to groundtruth the seismic stratigraphy of the basins and to open the way to unraveling relationships between volcanic activity and crustal rift pulses. Two sites of condensed sequences on the basin margins served to sample many volcanic layers within the detailed age-depth constraints provided mainly by biostratigraphy, as diagenetic effects complicated the magnetic reversal record significantly. Drilling penetrated the Alpine basement at three basin sites northeast of Santorini, whereas in the Christiana Basin to the southwest it penetrated a thick sequence of Messinian evaporites. Drilling inside Santorini caldera penetrated to ~120 meters below seafloor (mbsf), less than planned due to hole instability issues but deep enough to groundtruth the seismic stratigraphy and to sample the different layers. One intracaldera hole yielded a detailed tephra record of the history of the Kameni Islands, as well as possible evidence for deep bacterial colonies within the caldera. Despite variable recovery in the unstable pumice and ash deposits, the expedition was a significant success that may address almost all the science objectives once the laboratory work has been done. A dense program of preexpedition and shipboard outreach during the expedition gave rise to 59 live ship-to-shore tours, reaching 6,400 people in 7 countries including many school children. A total of 51 journalists were contacted and 9 stories were written about the expedition, with a readership of almost 200,000 people. While in Santorini caldera, the ship hosted 12 documentarians and journalists, the future products of whom should include a 1.5 h documentary and a four-part TV series about Expedition 398. The expedition social media pages were active. Prior to the expedition, an exhibition, “In Search of Earth’s Secrets,” ran for a week on Santorini and was visited by more than 1,800 school children. 
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) program is a coordinated, multiexpedition drilling project designed to investigate fault mechanics and seismogenesis along subduction megathrusts through direct sampling, in situ measurements, and long-term monitoring in conjunction with allied laboratory and numerical modeling studies. The fundamental scientific objectives of the NanTroSEIZE drilling project include characterizing the nature of fault slip and strain accumulation, fault and wall rock composition, fault architecture, and state variables throughout the active plate boundary system. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 380 will deploy a permanent long-term borehole monitoring system (LTBMS) in a new cased hole at Site C0006 above the frontal thrust, where previous expeditions have conducted logging-while-drilling and coring operations. This deployment will be the third borehole observatory deployed as part of the NanTroSEIZE program, and it will extend the existing NanTroSEIZE LTBMS network seaward to include the frontal thrust region of the Nankai accretionary prism. This expedition will cover a period of 40 days, beginning on 12 January 2018 and ending on 24 February. The LTBMS sensors will include seafloor reference and formation pressure sensors, a thermistor string, a broadband seismometer, a tiltmeter, a volumetric strainmeter, geophones, and accelerometers. The casing plan does not include a screened interval for this LTBMS; the monitoring zone will be isolated from the seafloor by a swellable packer (inside the casing) and cement at the casing shoe. This LTBMS will be later linked to the Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET) submarine network. This Scientific Prospectus outlines the scientific rationale, objectives, and operational plans for Site C0006. A congruent “NanTroSEIZE Investigation at Sea” will convene researchers aboard the D/V Chikyu to use the latest techniques and equipment to reexamine cores, shipboard measurement data (including X-ray computed tomography scans), and logging-while-drilling data collected during NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 in 2007. 
    more » « less