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Title: Steadiness of Coronal Heating
Abstract

The EUI instrument on the Solar Orbiter spacecraft has obtained the most stable, high-resolution images of the solar corona from its orbit with a perihelion near 0.4 au. A sequence of 360 images obtained at 17.1 nm, between 2022 October 25 19:00 and 19:30 UT, is scrutinized. One image pixel corresponds to 148 km at the solar surface. The widely held belief that the outer atmosphere of the Sun is in a continuous state of magnetic turmoil is pitted against the EUI data. The observed plasma variations appear to fall into two classes. By far the dominant behavior is a very low amplitude variation in brightness (1%) in the coronal loops, with larger variations in some footpoint regions. No hints of observable changes in magnetic topology are associated with such small variations. The larger-amplitude, more rapid, rarer, and less well organized changes are associated with flux emergence. It is suggested therefore that while magnetic reconnection drives the latter, most of the active corona is heated with no evidence of a role for large-scale (observable) reconnection. Since most coronal emission-line widths are subsonic, the bulk of coronal heating, if driven by reconnection, can only be of tangentially discontinuous magnetic fields, with angles below about 0.5cS/cA∼ 0.3β, withβthe plasma beta parameter (∼0.01) andcSandcAthe sound and Alfvén speeds, respectively. If heated by multiple small flare-like events, then these must be ≲1021erg, i.e., picoflares. But processes other than reconnection have yet to be ruled out, such as viscous dissipation, which may contribute to the steady heating of coronal loops over active regions.

 
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NSF-PAR ID:
10470401
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.3847
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Volume:
957
Issue:
1
ISSN:
0004-637X
Format(s):
Medium: X Size: Article No. 25
Size(s):
["Article No. 25"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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